F1 and F2 Strains Explained
Looking at the hemp industry, it’s incredible to see the amount of development that has occurred since legalization. Excitingly, we have reached a point where cutting-edge plant science is being applied to commercial hemp production. These advancements have opened new doors of understanding on breeding premium CBD hemp strains.
As pioneers of the CBD space, High Grade Hemp Seed has developed an extensive knowledge-base on hemp genetics. To this end, our goal is to help you better understand the technical nuances of choosing hemp seeds. A particularly pressing issue for modern hemp farmers is understanding the F1 and F2 generation definition.
The abbreviations “F1” and “F2” refer to the genetic lineage of a particular hemp plant. More specifically, they describe how many generations of breeding have occurred from the original in-bred genetics from which the hemp plant was derived. This is important because F1 and F2 hemp plants of the same strain can have dramatically different characteristics.
In order to make the best hemp seed purchases possible, it’s critical to educate yourself on the differences between F1 and F2 genetics. Every growing season, countless hemp farmers go broke because they used the wrong genetics. To help ensure your success next growing season, High Grade Hemp Seed put together this brief exploration into F1 and F2 strains.
What do F1 and F2 Mean in Hemp Seeds?
In the world of plant genetics, the acronyms F1 and F2 refer to the genetic heritage of a particular hemp plant.
The term F1 means “first filial generation, or the genetic cross between two genetically distinct plants.” F2 refers to the next generation of hemp plants that results from breeding two F1 plants.
F1 hemp plants are cross-bred from two distinct in-bred lines (IBL) of plants. In hemp cultivation circles, IBL strains are also referred to as “homozygous plants.” These strains are in-bred for uniformity for several generations with the goal of controlling dominant genetic traits. In essence, the hybrid offspring of IBL strains comprise the entire catalog of hemp genetics available today.
F1 genetics are sought after by hemp farmers because these hybrids produce robust and consistent offspring. This predictability in crop performance is a huge asset in commercial hemp production. As such, by purchasing verified F1 strains, you give yourself the best chance of having a good harvest.
Why are F1 Hemp Seeds Better than F2?
The reasons why F1 hemp seeds are better than F2 seeds can be explained by how genes express themselves in different generations of cross-bred plants. Importantly, F2 hemp plants often display stunted and abnormal growth due to the expression of recessive alleles.
The encyclopedia definition of allele is as such, “also called allelomorph, [alleles are] any one of two or more genes that may occur alternatively as a given site (locus) on a chromosome. Alleles may occur in pairs, or there may be multiple alleles affecting the expression (phenotype) of a particular trait.”
What’s critical to note here is that recessive alleles can remain hidden in F2 hemp strains for generations. However, when the F2 is bred with the wrong plant, the recessive alleles can surface and wreak havoc on a crop. The worst part being, you won’t have any idea when these recessive traits will surface.
Due to the fact that the genetic expression of F2 hemp plants is so difficult to predict, we also recommend that you don’t attempt to breed them. To illustrate, experts feel “once you get past F1, it becomes really advanced breeding. F2’s can be a big mess if they aren’t done right.”
F1 hemp seeds are better than F2s because they offer more predictable crops. Even more, studies have proven that F1 cross genetics grow more vigorously than more F2 strains. As commercial hemp farming already faces great challenges with weather and bugs, why not eliminate as much risk as possible by using F1 genetics?
What are the Best F1 Hemp Strains?
At High Grade Hemp Seed, all of our hemp strains are F1 hybrids. That being said, you can trust that our hemp seeds and starts will set you up for success next growing season. Even more, you can rest easy knowing you are circumventing the extra problems that come with growing F2 hemp strains.
Here are a few of our most highly sought-after hemp strains:
Cherry Wine is one of our most popular CBD strains at High Grade Hemp Seed. This F1 hybrid features uniform hemp plants that consistently produce quality flowers. Even more, Cherry Wine maximizes CBD production while keeping THC levels below 0.03%.
Merlot was carefully bred to maximize CBD production as well as robust plant growth. These F1 hemp seeds are a sure bet for a reliable crop of top-shelf flowers. Even more, their strong terpene profile will leave a lasting impression – in both flowers and concentrates.
High Grade Hemp Seed puts serious energy into breeding Trophy Wife. This high CBD strain is the result of breeding a homozygous Cherry Wine male with a Wife S1 phenotype. The end result is a vigorous hemp strain that consistently produces CBD-rich flowers.
ArkRyder is one of the crowning achievements of our breeding program at High Grade Hemp Seed. With robust growth and high CBD ratios, this F1 strain represents the very best in current hemp genetics.
Our breeders went above-and-beyond with EliRae, as they fused our foundational feminized hybrids in a single strain. EliRae plants regularly put up 600 gram harvests with an amazing CBD ratio of 20:1.
Contact High Grade Hemp Seed
High Grade Hemp Seed is at the forefront of plant breeding in the hemp industry. Contact Us to discuss our award-winning hemp genetics in more detail.
What are F1 Seeds? What about F2, F3, etc?
Breeders often devote their entire careers to creating that one perfect cross. They achieve this by enhancing the strongest properties through selection and crossbreeding. These crosses are indicated by generation.
Let’s discuss what F1, F2, F3, etc selections are.
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- What are hybrid cannabis strains?
- What are f1, f2, f3, etc. selections?
- Creating new cannabis strains
- Pure breeding line or strain
- Creating a stable f1 strain
- Let’s recap.
What are hybrid cannabis strains?
The demand for new cannabis species is increasing with the natural consequence that there is plenty of experimentation by breeders.
As a result of this (cross) breeding and experimenting, most of the species on the current commercial market are hybrids. These are plants that are a result of crossbreeding several cannabis varieties to amplify certain effects or characteristics.
As this crossing process evolves, the plants will eventually form seeds from different cannabis strains or generations.
Cannabis, like any other plant, exists as a pure variety or as a hybrid mix of strains.
Hybrids are the result of attempts to shape plants with specific characteristics, which are common in ruderalis, Sativa, and Indica strains. Successful crosses inherit the best traits of both parents.
When the industry started to commercialize, both pure varieties and existing hybrids were constantly mixed and recombined. These efforts have produced some of the best-known species today.
What are F1, F2, F3, etc. selections?
As you further specialize in cannabis cultivation, you will undoubtedly encounter more and more impressive terminology.
When I first saw the term “F1 strain”, I seriously wondered what car racing and cannabis have to do with each other (and if it was wise to combine the two).
Needless to say, the guys got a good laugh out of that one. It turns out it has nothing to do with the automotive sports industry, nor should we fear for Hamilton’s safety.
In this case, F1 means something totally different and very fascinating!
In a nutshell, an F1 variety is the first hybrid plant from a specific pair of parents and a new phenotype that is
independent, yet still closely related to the two parents.
But that just sounds confusing and doesn’t cover the load. Let’s go further back first before we take a leap into the unknown.
Creating new cannabis strains
The basics of growing plants are always the same. This also applies to cannabis. Male pollen pollinates the female plant. Nature has ensured this happens naturally.
But when creating a hybrid, the growers use selective breeding in a controlled environment. This entails that the breeder personally selects the female plant and the male pollen in order to get one or more specific characteristics in the offspring.
A few of the properties that can be improved through selection are rooting, growth potential, flowering period, color, bud structure, and yield.
The seeds germinated after this process are the first generation of hybrids from male and female parents. The plants with the desired characteristics undergo this selective process again.
Once the desired traits are achieved, the breeder stabilizes the species.
The next step is crossing the young hybrid with the parent species to enhance the characteristics.
This process requires a lot of patience and perseverance from the breeder since stabilizing the properties of a species usually requires three or more generations.
We distinguish the following generations:
To make a well-informed decision when deciding on what the ideal seeds for you, it is helpful to understand the differences between these different generations.
Pure-breeding line or strain
A group of identical individual plants that always produce offspring of the same phenotype when intercrossed.
Pure-breeds are unadulterated traditional landraces that have only interbred with similar strains and so have almost identical genes.
F1 – The first grow
F1 stands for “first-generation hybrid”. The F derives from Filius, which is the Latin word for “son”. Yes, botanists sure love their Latin 😉
You create an F1 strain by crossing two pure strains with completely different phenotypes. To achieve this, the grower will, for example, take 100 of their best plants and select only the very best mother plants based on a specific trait from one strain.
He will do the same with another (pure) species.
Let’s take a large plant (represented by two dominant genes, AA)
and cross it with a small but bushy plant (represented by the two
small recessive genes, aa). Since the resulting plants each receive
one gene from each parent, this will result in offspring with the following genetic makeup: Aa. All four offspring have the same makeup and will each be tall bushy plants.
The difference from the parent generation, in this case, is that these will not be pure strains due to the presence of the recessive gene.
F2 – Keep on crossing
To create an F2 strain, the breeder will cross two members of the F1 family together.
The offspring that comes from this crossing has
the genetic makeup of AA, Aa, AA, and aa.
That means that the F2 seed variety will have three tall plants and one short plant. So, the main difference between the F1 and F2 varieties is the amount of genetic variation and purity of the seed strain.
F3 – Reducing variation
As the cycle continues, we keep combining plants with the desired traits. We call this generation: F3. For example, if the grower was looking for short plants, he would select parents with the composition of Aa and aa.
The result of this combination is two tall plants, each with the genetic markers of Aa, and two short plants (both aa). This breeding has actually reduced the variation towards a more stable variety. We call this process stabilizing.
Since F3 varieties usually start of rather unable we advise to cross it back with the selected F2 mother plant.
F4 – Narrowing the number of phenotypes
Once you’ve achieved a level of stability in your F3 variety, it is time to take your game to the next level. By continuing the selection process and using only the most stable plants from the previous generation, we’ve now reached the F4 variety.
F4 varieties contain even fewer phenotypes, which means that the plants should be nearly identical, with only slight variations in, for example, scent or yield.
F5 – Perfecting the process
By continuing on this path of crossing the strongest plants back within their own generation, the stability grows and a strong new species has emerged.
After F5, the plants are IBL.
IBL stands for “inbred line”, AKA the holy grail of cannabis cultivation.
An IBL is a breed that produces offspring with stable and consistent genetics usually from a single dominant phenotype of the strain.
These strains will produce balanced and homogenous offspring with the desired specific characteristics time and time again for many generations.
Creating a stable F1 strain
When you pollinate a feminized female plant with pollen of the male-cannabis plant, you will get seeds, but not automatically a stable strain.
Breeders create stabilized hybrids and then continually interbreed, stabilizing their characteristics from generation to generation.
There are very few strains of stabilized hybrids as the process takes a number of generations, over several years, to achieve.
It is important to note that ‘stable’ is not the same as ‘true-breeding’. A true-breeding strain will produce consistent offspring of one dominant phenotype. In marijuana strains, you can mainly find this in landraces.
If you want to create a stable strain that shows the generation of the same characteristic after generation, you will have to stabilize it by crossing it back various times. By always selecting and crossing plants with the desired characteristics, you stabilize a species.
Since this is a time-consuming technical process that demands a lot from the breeder, it’s now clear where the -sometimes- massive price difference for different types of seeds comes from.
F1 is the result of crossing 2 separate varieties. The resulting seeds are F1 and they will be stable, meaning the plant qualities should be pretty consistent.
All the plants from these seeds will be very similar. This is great if you prefer a crop of identical plants.
F2 is a cross of 2 of your F1 plants from the seeds you bred. F2 is what true breeders are looking for.
The F2 seeds are unstable meaning the plants grown can show very different qualities, some may be good while others are bad. The F2 seeds can contain all the possibilities of phenotypes from all of the previous lineages of both parents.
F2’s are where you will find the next great strains which is what true breeders are consistently trying to do along with producing stable seeds for its consumers.
Once you find that special F2 plant, you need to cross it with another F2 from the same seed batch. Next, cross this plant back with your special F2. The seeds from this, called F3 will be unstable and may not produce your special F2 consistently.
To stabilize your new strain (The special F2 plant you selected) you now grow F3 seeds and pick one of these to back cross with your F2 mother.
The resulting seeds from this will be an F4 and more stable than F3 seeds. You continue this process to about an F5. By this time the F5 seeds should be stable and look like the new breed F2 that you found. You have now created your very own new strain!
So the main difference between F1, F2, and F3, etc. is simply the generation and level of stability that comes with them.
With each successive selection, the grower selectively takes the plants that are the best representation of the properties he desires and uses them for crossings.
I hope this has given you some insight and clarity and brought you are one step closer to being a full-fledged Marijuana high school graduate. Happy growing
Educated by one of the best breeders in the Netherlands, I chose to combine my passion for writing with the fascinating world of cannabis cultivation. What are the best strains for which occasion, what are the effects, and how to use responsibly? Let me take you on a journey.
F1, F2, S1 – What do They Mean for Your Weed?
Once someone has become a master grower, they can then work towards being a master breeder. While growers are simply taking seeds and growing them into beautiful plants, they are growing something that nature, or someone else, has actually created. However, when one becomes a breeder, they get to truly play god by breeding different strains together, making seeds, and even making their very own strain. In order to do so, one has to first have a good grasp on things science, genetics, and how cannabis plants work to make seeds, to make bud, and how different plants work together.
What are F1 and F2 cannabis seeds?
The terms “F1” “F2” and “S1” are some of the first that beginner breeders will come across. They refer to outbreeding, or producing hybrid seeds, which is the practice of cross-breeding two plants that originally have completely different genetics. In order to do so, two stable parents must be chosen so the pollen from the male can be used to fertilize the female.
This will result in the hybrid seeds the breeders are after, and they’re known as “F1” seeds, or first generation seeds. F1 seeds will be the most stable of any seeds that follow it in future generations, and those generations will be known as “F2” seeds, “F3” seeds, and so forth as more seeds are made. However, F1 seeds are the most sought after by breeders because they grow about 25 percent faster, and they grow larger and with more vigor that subsequent generations.
What are S1 seeds?
In addition to F1 and F2 seeds, there are also S1 seeds. The “S” in this case refers to “self” or “selfed”, meaning that these seeds will be selfed-generation. They do not need a male plant for pollen but rather, the female plant is reversed so that pollen can be collected. The pollen will then be used to pollinate the mother plant or a clone of the mother to get S1 seeds. Males can be selfed as well, but in both cases it’s a complex process that requires great focus from even the most experienced breeders.
Breeding can be even more exciting than growing because it’s a chance to really make your own strain and create something that will highlight your preferences. Breeding can be a complicated matter, however. Start by understanding some of the basic terminology, and what’s needed to create a stable strain, and you’ll be well on your way to your own.