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Sage walker seeds

Small mammal seed preference in coastal sage scrub communities : new technologies, new insights

Many rodents in southern California shrublands are granivorous and can affect the distribution of seeds after seed dispersal through seed predation and caching. Rodent seed preferences are hypothesized to affect plant community composition, as rodents tend to prefer larger, exotic seeds over smaller, native seeds. Traditionally, small mammal studies use live trapping to determine community composition and density. Some of these studies couple trapping data with seed predation studies, using indirect inference to relate seed removal patterns to the local granivore community. Using this approach, researchers must assume the rodents that are trapped on large grids are proportional to the individuals removing seed from the dishes and driving seed preference (if any). The only way to evaluate this critical assumption is through direct observation. In this project, I used direct observation and performed a seed predation study. I presented native and non-native seed mixtures in partitioned Petri dishes at stations across fourteen sites at Rancho Jamul Ecological Reserve (RJER; San Diego County, California). At each station, one seed dish was open and thus accessible to all granivores. A second dish was placed inside a wire cage with a PVC tube entrance and was only accessible to rodents. I recorded all seed removal using a custom built, portable infrared digital camera and digital video recorder system. The objectives of this study are: (1) to quantify selective granivory (native versus exotic) (2) If so, to assess whether selectivity varies with animal guild (genus, family) and (3) to evaluate what new insights can be gleaned from direct observation of granivory in this system. Total weight of seed removed varied with season, time of day, dish placement (open or tube), and the presence/absence of certain taxa. Selective granivory (preference for nonnative seed) was common and varied with taxon. Peromyscus and heteromyids were the strongest indicators of seed removal, and also the strongest indicators of selective seed predation: when either Peromyscus or heteromyids were present during a two-night study, significantly more total seed was removed and significantly more non-native seed than native seed was removed. The tendency for a granivore to visit a seed dish varies with taxon. Peromyscus and Chaetodipus were more likely than the other common genera to visit a dish once they had been detected by the video camera. Additionally, the PVC tube entrance to the rodent-only exclosure was assumed to be a benign component of the station and equally used by all rodent species. I documented tube avoidance behavior by all but one (Peromyscus) rodent genus that visited the stations. This study shows that direct observation provides much more detailed and nuanced information on seed dish visitation and preferential seed predation. As technology improves, it is important to consider new and/or alternative methods that can improve our understanding of ecological interactions through direct, detailed observation.

See also  Lgbt seeds

In collections

Small mammal seed preference in coastal sage scrub communities : new technologies, new insights

viii, 23 pages : illustrations

Many rodents in southern California shrublands are granivorous and can affect the distribution of seeds after seed dispersal through seed predation and caching. Rodent seed preferences are hypothesized to affect plant community composition, as rodents tend to prefer larger, exotic seeds over smaller, native seeds. Traditionally, small mammal studies use live trapping to determine community composition and density. Some of these studies couple trapping data with seed predation studies, using indirect inference to relate seed removal patterns to the local granivore community. Using this approach, researchers must assume the rodents that are trapped on large grids are proportional to the individuals removing seed from the dishes and driving seed preference (if any). The only way to evaluate this critical assumption is through direct observation. In this project, I used direct observation and performed a seed predation study. I presented native and non-native seed mixtures in partitioned Petri dishes at stations across fourteen sites at Rancho Jamul Ecological Reserve (RJER; San Diego County, California). At each station, one seed dish was open and thus accessible to all granivores. A second dish was placed inside a wire cage with a PVC tube entrance and was only accessible to rodents. I recorded all seed removal using a custom built, portable infrared digital camera and digital video recorder system. The objectives of this study are: (1) to quantify selective granivory (native versus exotic) (2) If so, to assess whether selectivity varies with animal guild (genus, family) and (3) to evaluate what new insights can be gleaned from direct observation of granivory in this system. Total weight of seed removed varied with season, time of day, dish placement (open or tube), and the presence/absence of certain taxa. Selective granivory (preference for nonnative seed) was common and varied with taxon. Peromyscus and heteromyids were the strongest indicators of seed removal, and also the strongest indicators of selective seed predation: when either Peromyscus or heteromyids were present during a two-night study, significantly more total seed was removed and significantly more non-native seed than native seed was removed. The tendency for a granivore to visit a seed dish varies with taxon. Peromyscus and Chaetodipus were more likely than the other common genera to visit a dish once they had been detected by the video camera. Additionally, the PVC tube entrance to the rodent-only exclosure was assumed to be a benign component of the station and equally used by all rodent species. I documented tube avoidance behavior by all but one (Peromyscus) rodent genus that visited the stations. This study shows that direct observation provides much more detailed and nuanced information on seed dish visitation and preferential seed predation. As technology improves, it is important to consider new and/or alternative methods that can improve our understanding of ecological interactions through direct, detailed observation.

See also  Elphinstone seeds

Junior Walker Nepeta

Nepeta Junior Walker™ blooms profusely all summer, painting the garden with spikes of lavender-blue blossoms that butterflies find irresistible. Fragrant, gray-green foliage and sturdy stems form a low mound perfect for the front of borders and along walkways. Junior Walker™ is a sterile, compact form of Walker’s Low catmint. Deer resistant. (Nepeta x faassenii ‘Novanepjun’)

USDA Hardiness Planting Zones

To determine if a plant is sufficiently cold hardy, the USDA created numbered zones indicating winter low temperatures; the lower the zone number the colder the winter.

  • If the coldest winter temperature expected in your area is -15°F (zone 5) then any plants rated zones 3-5 will survive the winter temperatures in your area.
  • If you live in very warm winter areas (zones 9-11) plants with zones 3-4 ratings are not recommended. The lack of freezing winter temperatures do not provide a time for winter dormancy (rest).

Find Your Planting Zone:

Further Reading:

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As soon as your order is placed you will receive a confirmation email. You will receive a second email the day your order ships telling you how it has been sent. Some perennials are shipped as potted plants, some as perennial roots packed in peat. The ‘Plant Information’ section describes how that item will ship. All perennials and spring-planted bulbs are packaged to withstand shipping and are fully-guaranteed. Please open upon receipt and follow the instructions included.

See also  G-cut seeds

Perennials and spring-planted bulbs are shipped at the proper planting time for your hardiness zone. Perennial and spring-planted bulb orders will arrive separately from seeds. If your order requires more than one shipment and all items are shipping to the same address, there is no additional shipping charge. See our shipping information page for approximate ship dates and more detailed information. If you have any questions, please call Customer Service toll-free at (877) 309-7333 or contact us by email.

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Our shipping rates are calculated based on our actual average shipping costs. We do not seek to profit from shipping fees, so rest assured that our shipping rates reflect an average of what it costs to get our guaranteed products safely to your door.

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$5 to $399.99 $7.99 + 6% Merchandise Total
$400 and Over 8% Merchandise Total

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Up to $24.99 $14.95
$25 to $49.99 $19.95
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$100 and Over $39.95

If your order requires more than one shipment and all items are shipping to the same address, there is no additional shipping charge. If you have any questions, please call us at (877) 309-7333.

Tomato and Roasted Lemon Salad – a Yotam Ottolenghi recipe

Bring a small saucepan of water to a boil, add the lemon slices, and blanch for 2 minutes. Drain well, place the lemon in a bowl, and add 1 tablespoon of the oil, ½ teaspoon salt, the sugar, and the sage. Gently mix and then spread the lemon mixture out on a baking sheet lined with parchment paper. Place in the oven and cook for 20 minutes, until the lemons have dried out a little. Remove and set aside to cool.
In a bowl, combine the tomatoes, allspice, parsley, mint, pomegranate seeds, pomegranate molasses, onion, the remaining 2 tablespoons oil, ¼ teaspoon salt, and some freshly ground pepper. Add the lemon slices, stir gently, and serve.

Mixed salad with citrus

  • Homegrown lettuce
  • Homemade sundried tomatoes
  • Roasted cashew nuts
  • Roasted sesame seeds
  • Chopped tomatoes
  • Cucumber chopped
  • Homemade pickled onions
  • Selection of fresh herbs (rosemary, thyme, basil, etc)

Toss everything together and serve with a homemade balsamic, olive oil and herb salad dressing.