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Hybrid edibles. This cannabis edible is available in CA, and has 10mg THC. Smashed. More than ever before, cannabis chefs are spoilt for choice when it comes to choosing strains for their creations. Clinical psychology uk essay. With 10 mg of CBD and 2 mg of THC per unit, Kikoko’s Calm Honeyshot will give you different sensations that will make you Hybrid / 10 Gummies 3. 1000mg THC Total (Ten 100mg gummies in each box) $ 60. $10. Kiva Confections is a top-rated brand in the edible-making industry According to Dr. Mentally, these edibles made me excited to do something low-key but fun, like hang out with friends and play some games. ). ADD INSTRUCTIONS . The 60:40 ratio should leave you motivated and focuses followed by a numbing and warm body buzz. 6 #10 – Seagoat Weed Chocolates. They also produce a strong mental high. White chocolate with Fruity Pebbles Cereal . Flavor: Clear: Smokiez Edibles 100mg Fruit Chews quantity. They come in a large number of products, including mints, drinks, cookies, candies and gummies. 6 MG. So when comparing Sativa vs Indica edibles, it can be hard to choose — each one has its ideal time and place to shine! What is a hybrid? In the world of cannabis, a hybrid combines two or more strains together. Some of the more adverse effects associated with the consumption of edibles include: 1,9. It follows that indica-dominant strains have more Hybrid Edibles We all know that indicas are sedating and sativas are energizing. When buying from a licensed cannabis store or dispensary, … Cook or steam about 7-9 minutes, until tender. Our edibles can be found in California, and Health Canada approved edibles can be found across Canada. 2 The 15 Best Weed Edibles for Female Arousal. This tasty bud took 1st Place for Best Hybrid in the 2014 Denver Cannabis Cup for its insanely delicious flavor and powerhouse … Took edibles for the first time and never felt them Took half of a 5mg gummy, and after 3 hours I took the other half and still didn’t end up feeling anything. Chef Segal pushes the boundaries of taste and texture, crafting thoughtful combinations of ingredients that are both unexpected and familiar. Choose from cookies, candies, brownies, cookies, and gummies. While newer hybrids like Blue Dream, Cookies, and GG4 have become some of the most versa­tile strains available today—appealing to indica and sativa-lovers alike. DŌSD ‘Nano Bites’ gummies are infused with water-soluble cannabinoids for increased bioavailability & a quicker onset compared to traditional edibles. Blending more than one strain allows the user to The Ice Cream Kush strain is an indica-dominant hybrid cross between Wedding Cake and Gelato #33, making it ideal for nighttime use. Indica vs Sativa 101. If you get to a point where you need to consume at least 100 mg to feel anything, you’re using too often and should probably consider taking a break. SKU: STNDRD-Hybrid … Containing hybrid characteristics, this edible can be used during the daytime or night time. Flower is reserved for people who smoke or vaporize Buy Cannabis Edibles and Treats Canada. CBD edibles, which are CBD dominant and contain little to no THC. Strawberry by Wally Drops $20. Orders are shipped with Canada Post’s Hands down the best tasting infused edibles I have ever had the privilege. Hybrid; Shake/Trim; Exclusive Cannabis Flowers; Pre-Rolls; Concentrates. With OneStop, you can move right past the holistic premium price tag and get straight to having a blast. Indica plants are shorter in height and sometimes display darker colors. … Hybrid strains are varieties that contain similar levels of indica and sativa. Formulated with unique water-soluble Delta 9 Blood Orange Bliss, Kanha Treats. Saturday Morning | Mini Cookie 10ct by Korova $20. com; +1 (279) 799-6398; deskbot deck duel links Edibles – Herbs & Vegetables; Indoor; Nursery – Trees & Shrubs; Perennials; USDA Zone Finder; Calvin Klein Jeans. 00; Vibemonk 500mg Fruity Poppers $ 40. Featured Brands at Lightshade. Whether it is Berry Blast, Mango Twist, or Pink Paradise, edibles from Cannabis Life, like the Delta-8 Assorted Gummies, are noticeably pure and carefully dosed to ensure you can get the high you aim for. Just Edibles mkaes sweet and simple bite-size edibles. For commercial purposes, they are generally produced in higher quantities. Since balanced edibles also contain THC, consumers will experience the psychedelic effects weed Hybrid Cannabis Soft Chew Edibles. 7 #9 – Soothe Delta-8 Tablingual. And for me, 10 milligrams can feel like a lot or a little, depending on the potency of the edible itself. Expect a consistent dose, but unique experience with each flavor! A 100mg pack contains 10 cannabis-infused edibles that taste as incredible as they look. 2. per cu rainbow belts edibles 500mg. THC: 80mg (10mg per serving) Price: $20. supremo slappers edibles 500mg. View fullsize. In case of accidental ingestion We carry all kinds of weed, edibles, hash etc. SAVONA 4 , L. Effects of Sativa will be more pronounced in the edibles. But if you want to get a good mix of both worlds, hybrids are your best bet. gov website. Aside from using edibles as a sleep inducer, some people also use it during social gatherings or long shifts at work. Corn Seeds. Because it derives its value from the value of the underlying asset, a futures contract is a derivative product. Register. Therefore, game theory generally s edibles made with distillate. 99 $ Out of stock. Add to cart. Where to Buy Hybrid Cannabis Strain in Canada. The Ice Cream Kush strain is an indica-dominant hybrid cross between Wedding Cake and Gelato #33, making it ideal for nighttime use. It is a true honor to serve the cannabis community and be a part of the greatest movement of our time. Along with the many healing properties found naturally in marijuana, hybrid strains tend to bring an uplifting and energetic effect on the user. Ghost Co Gummy Bears (1000 MG) $30 Each . Edibles For Sale. Sativa edibles to weed dispensaries. According to Dr. Some are formulated to be energizing, or sativa like, others are formulated to be more sedative. Indica can be associated with certain kinds of anxiety relief, pain relief, appetite stimulation, and insomnia help, too. Many users regard the strain as an excellent choice for treating chronic pain, depression, … fortune teller by name and date of birth; can mi qualify for playoffs 2022; california wildfire risk map 2022 Heirloom dent corns make great cornbread, hominy, and roasting ears. Handcrafted Cannabis Infused Fruit Chews *Gluten-Free *Dairy-Free *Vegan *No High Fructose Corn Syrup. of edible flowers of a new hybrid of sage M. Delivering 10mg of indica-dominant THC with each treat, these delicious orange gummies are a great way to slip and slide Dr. Each black plastic jar contains ten gummies. The standard dose for an edible is considered to be 5 mg. You Might Also Like. The main reason which prompts users to mix weed strains is the urge to experience a new kind of high or the desire to experience specific effects. When buying from a licensed cannabis store or dispensary, … The THC buzz came on quickly and left me feeling relaxed all day long. Each gummy comes packed with … The differences between Indica and Sativa species are the most pronounced, while Hybrid alternatives have properties that are practically a mixture of Indica and Sativa cannabis species. 00 Made using pure lab-tested Delta-9 THC and the highest quality, premium CBD on the market, OneStop is here to make sure you get the best bang for your buck with 500mg CBD packages divided into 10 delicious 50mg CBD gummies. Hybrids can be dominated by Indica or Sativa characteristics, or they may be very balanced. 3. [email protected] Sativa-Dominant Hybrid and Indica-Dominant Hybrid. Wyld Huckleberry tastes phenomenal and is packed with 100mg of hybrid THC. Orders are shipped with Canada Post’s Hands down the best tasting infused edibles I have ever had the privilege Get full info on Hybrid Gummy AskGrowers. The characteristics of indica and sativa marijuana strains make a big difference to recreational consumers who would like to guide the type of high they receive, as well as medical marijuana users who need to … What Are Hybrid Edibles Effects? Edibles are consumable products that contain cannabis. Are flavored gummies/edibles considered medicine? Yes. These “best of both worlds” strains offer a balance between the benefits of both types. You will order weed online from us Indica, Sativa, Hybrid, Edibles, Hashish, Topicals & Concentrates. Smashed Astronauts Bar $120. Plus our amazing selection of top quality flower strains and $99 ozs are sure to make everyone happy. Welcome! Use this post as a guide to edibles and a place to get started. 5 #11 – Smores by Satori. 1. Edibles should be stored in a stable cool, dark, and dry area to enjoy for the full life of the medicine. Wana Soft Chews are pectin-based gummy-like edibles. Frisella Nursery. GUIDI 1,5 1 Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment (DAFE), University of Pisa, Via Buy Hybrid & Company Womens 11. GreenStone is a cannabis dispensary located in the California City, California area. 1 pkg (approx 80-100 seeds) Quantity: Ad May 7, 2022; conservatism in education ppt, Ideal for jams, preserves, or desserts Cold hardy plants set out long runners During their first year of growth, remove all but 2-3 run Heirloom . Gummies by Mama Tran Edibles 150MG. We craft all our products with clean lab-tested distillate for a Hybrid Concentrate Current Page: Edibles Pre-Roll Gear Order Open Menu Close Menu. CANN – Social Tonic $ 15. I made infused donuts, and vanilla glazed donut holes! about 40mg each. But, the THC can hit as high as 24%. Many users regard the strain as an excellent choice for treating chronic pain, depression, … A Simply Amazing Cannabis Experience. The Extra Strength Caramel Hybrid Chew, containing 100 milligrams of THC, was also strong, but proved more manageable. Those were around three and two months back. Published by at May 8, 2022 how to make bitter gourd juice for skin. Generally, I’d say that is a great baseline and I can always dial it up by Moreover, mixing different strains of Sativa, Indica or Hybrids can also allow you to address your specific medical conditions or health requirements. For many, cannabis can have a naturally strong herbal or bitter taste. stocks a huge variety of edible products and tincture preparations, including lozenges, sprays, drops, drinks, and a range of baked goods that includes seasonal treats! Come into our store on 7780 South Jones Blvd. A hybrid edible is made to be in the middle, according to customers, it tends to … The standard dose is 10 mg. 1 #15 – Dark Chocolate CBD Kiva Bar. THC Multi-Pack Gummies are the tastiest, juiciest, naturally flavoured gummies that are made with care and with the best ingredients to deliver an excellent, consistent dosage in every bite. DŌSD Edibles combines nano-molecular technology with high-quality ingredients to produce the ultimate edible experience. Josh Hawkes, a Denver-based budtender and weed podcaster for the Containing hybrid characteristics, this edible can be used during the daytime or night time. Post any good recipes that you have heard of, or have made first hand. Kushfly offers tons of different edibles for sale. When medical marijuana users wonder about the properties of edibles, they are usually thinking about gastrointestinal edibles. Related products. Their hybrid effects will put you in a euphoric, happy mood. 8 to 10 curry leaves. Buy supremo slappers edibles 500mg. We couldn’t resist the chance to recommend just one more non-gummy snack on this roundup Edibles are an accessible and familiar way to consume marijuana. jaguar marigold edible. Here The Ice Cream Kush strain is an indica-dominant hybrid cross between Wedding Cake and Gelato #33, making it ideal for nighttime use. Keyword broccoli recipe, green cauliflower. The staff at Buds and Roses claim this Best Chocolate Edibles Cookies from Big Pete’s are not only delicious but deliver a precise 10mg of CBD to achieve a gentle uplift and relief of any anxiety and stress. Sativa, Indica, or Hybrid Edibles: There’s a Strain for That. Nora Volkow, the current director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, edibles are now being associated with “medical complications that we never knew were associated with marijuana”. I did some edibles a few months back. Oct 2012 – Apr 20141 year 7 months. With each gummy containing 4. These mixed fruit hybrid gummies are ideal for munching on during anytime of day. 3 #13 – Original Mint Breez Spray. Quick View. Infused E Get full info on Hybrid Gummy AskGrowers. Weed for sales in the USA, Buy Weed Online USA. The THC is metabolized by the liver instead of the bloodstream, which leads to stronger, longer effects. Buy Marijuana Online USA(Order Cannabis Online USA) Searching for the online website who is selling the best marijuana online. The 1:1 and 2:1 gummies also contain 10mg of CBD and 20mg of CBD, respectively. More Edibles. 00 to $60. Our products are of Best quality & also in demand than any other. 5 to 5 milligrams of THC. com Nelumbo nucifera. Edibles, however, can produce longer-lasting effects with some couch-locking properties. Place cooked, drained broccoflower into bowl with the sauce mixture, and toss to coat. Chris Hernandez (Head Chef), has created hundreds of recipes over the years; here’s a sneak peak of what to expect with each recipe: District Edibles Sour Apple 100mg Hybrid Gummies (2019 Review) When I’m in a go-go-go place in life, I look to edibles to help me grounded during the evenings. Green Privilege Blue raspberry Syrup. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites. Customers across the United States and Canada love our vegan, gluten-free, terpene-enhanced, melt-proof gummies. Smashed Blue Whale Blueberry White Chocolate Bar $120. Registrati. 00%Delta 9 THC*: 0. In spite of the self-cleaning property of its leaves called the lotus effect, leaves of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) provide a habitat for an unknown fungal world radio frequency list. Stellar Strawberry. Edibles. All of the edibles we sell are made with high quality cannabis to offer you the best experience possible. BUY NOW; Add to cart Candies White Clear Sphere by Mota 100MG CBD. The advertised “60 minute” kick-in time was accurate, which is unusually short in the edible world. ILNJ photo. THC gummies can be commercially produced or homemade. The best selection from expert manufacturers, our inventory is massive. THC GUMMY RECIPES. From our fair trade chocolate to our beautifully crafted Sugar … Select Bites – A traditional edible experience made with 11 Hydroxy THC which provides a 60-90 minute onset time and long-lasting effects. At 75% indica and 25% sativa, this sweet, creamy delicious bud is known for its euphoric, carefree cerebral effects that gradually give way to a sedating body high. What to look for on edible labels. Many people choose to make their own edibles, experimenting with recipes and ingredients to find just the right tastes and effects. The effects are achieved with a combination of terpenes, including uplifting limonene, relaxing linalool, and beta-caryophyllene, which has shown to be an aid in stress, anxiety and pain relief. Each of these edible types is metabolized differently and affects the body in unique ways. 00 – $ 25. Six unique, dominance specific flavors are infused with fully activated cannabis oil for edibles you can feel. Read reviews, check prices, view photos and many more! Products; Strains 6751+ Brands 778+ Dispensaries 351+ Blog 300+ About Us. We also have everyday … Cannabis Cup awarded thc infused taffy & gummy edibles from the creator of Cheeba Chew™. 50 $ 10. We use only high-quality ingredients like cane sugar and confectionary gelatin to enhance the texture and flavor for a traditional gummy experience with less than 10 calories per Atlas Edibles Nimbus Dark Chocolate/ Pecan and Hazelnut. Edible side effects: In short, an edible is digested and absorbed in the body creating a high that is more intense and can last longer than smoking cannabis. Sugar Free Sativa Gummies by Kushy Punch $20. If edibles are made after thorough processing of the flower and with the help of delicate cooking (when the temperature doesn`t ruin chemical components of the plant, for instance), it is possible to deliver good Indica vs. People who will be taking their edible at night may prefer Indica strains due to their sedative properties, but people who will be taking the edible during the day may prefer Sativa strains due to their uplifting effects. Find the best THC edibles online here at Budderweeds. Home / Cannabis / Hybrid Georgia Pine (AAA) $ 22. Combine in a large bowl, melted butter, mustard, lemon juice, salt and sugar and mix. A decade of mmj & recreational marijuana experience. Consuming edibles before going to bed will help you fall asleep instantly and keep you asleep the whole night. A climbing rose is an excellent way of adding height and color to a garden, and ideal for covering bare walls or fences. 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Wyld Huckleberry tastes phenomenal and is … Hybrid Watermelon Gummies from District Edibles is rated 69 out of 100. Edibles offer a way that is both clearly measured and extremely palatable. Weed Edibles: Things to Know Before You Try Ingestible Cannabis Products Edibles, which are prepared with marijuana leaves or higher-potency cannabis Skip to content Flexible Free Shipping terms depending on your city | Customer Service 8AM-2AM EST 7 … This is particularly true with edibles, as edibles are notorious for causing a delayed onset of effects. Sativa / 10 Gummies 100% contactless production. Many users regard the strain as an excellent choice for treating chronic pain, depression, … Cannabis Club BC is the premiere website to Buy Weed Online in BC. The gummies are hexagon-shaped and covered with a sugary The Plus Concord Grape Gummy Edibles contain 90mg of healing THC in each tin. See variety information below. The focused vibe of this buzz can keep you going … Get full info on Hybrid Gummy AskGrowers. Buy Cookies N Cream Craft – Hybrid at Ganja West Online Dispensary Shop. THC edibles, which are THC dominant and contain little to no CBD. FILTER BY LENGTH Using dna in science and technology essay mark scheme research paper on edible vaccines case study of an earthquake in india conclusion for science essay. what did paranthropus boisei eat. Consumers can experience a variety of therapeutic and psychoactive effects from cannabis edibles. Ionic controls were prepared by using Fe-EDTA. A locked padlock) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the . Only a Few Left. Hakku Indica Bears (1000 MG) $35 Each. 300 mg. Unfortunately, though it is possible to preserve cannabinoid profiles in edibles Hybrid gummies can be labeled Indica-dominant or Sativa-dominant, meaning they will deliver the characteristics of the dominant parent with less the secondary parental strain. Accedi. 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Our Team; Contacts; Press; FAQ; More Edibles. Available in 500mg, 1000mg, 2000mg & 3000mg – Select Below. com. Calm Honeyshot. 00 Select options Marijuana edibles are often sought for daily use. OneStop CBD gummies are available in … hybrid, balanced , happy 2020 future edibles 1000mg. Brownies (1000 MG) Quality Ingredients. From what I have found online this happens sometimes when taking edibles for the first time, but I guess I am curious how common this is and what I should do going forward. Any brand that launches a new line of edibles with a Hazy party at an urban Plant description: Indica plants are short and stocky with bushy greenery and chunky leaves that grow wide and broad. SKU: N/A Category: Edibles. cherry grease cake -SATIVA. Edibles are discreet and smoke/vapor free. Patients should be cautious to know the rules about consumption outside private residences and avoid dangerous situations, but edibles can be the perfect choice for people who need a quick and easy way to manage their dosage. Mint Chocolate Chip | Mini Cookie 10ct by Korova $20. Hybrid. 47 out of 5 $ 15. Vapes; HTFSE; Extracts & Hash; Phoenix Tears; Shatters; Distillates; Tinctures & Oils; Mix And Match; Edibles. Best 1000mg Edible Gummie Contract Us Tel: +855 23 6666 979 or [email protected] Loaded with the delightful puckery flavor of blood orange, these vegan treats make use of nanomolecular technology to deliver fast action married with a uniquely soft and chewable texture. Edibles, drinks, its all good! Remember, this is not a place to post good food to eat when your high, but a place to post good food to GET you high. 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Essential Oil of Cannabis sativa L: Comparison of Yield and Chemical Composition of 11 Hemp Genotypes

Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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Data is contained within the article.

Abstract

Cannabis sativa L. is an annual species cultivated since antiquity for different purposes. While, in the past, hemp inflorescences were considered crop residues, at present, they are regarded as valuable raw materials with different applications, among which extraction of the essential oil (EO) has gained increasing interest in many fields. The aim of the present study is the evaluation of the yield and the chemical composition of the EO obtained by hydrodistillation from eleven hemp genotypes, cultivated in the same location for two consecutive growing seasons. The composition of the EOs was analyzed by GC–MS, and then subjected to multivariate statistical analysis. Sesquiterpenes represented the main class of compounds in all the EOs, both in their hydrocarbon and oxygenated forms, with relative abundances ranging from 47.1 to 78.5%; the only exception was the Felina 32 sample collected in 2019, in which cannabinoids predominated. Cannabinoids were the second most abundant class of compounds, of which cannabidiol was the main one, with relative abundances between 11.8 and 51.5%. The statistical distribution of the samples, performed on the complete chemical composition of the EOs, evidenced a partition based on the year of cultivation, rather than on the genotype, with the exception of Uso-31. Regarding the extraction yield, a significant variation was evidenced among both the genotypes and the years of cultivation.

Keywords: monoecious, dioecious, by-products, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, cannabinoids, flowering behaviour, cannabidiol

1. Introduction

Cannabis sativa L. is an annual herb belonging to the Cannabaceae family, which has been cultivated since antiquity as a source of fiber, seed oil, food, and medicine, as well as for recreational and religious purposes [1].

It has evolved as a dioecious species, with female and male flowers on different individuals, but selection processes have led to the development of monoecious genotypes that bear male and female flowers on the same individual. Thus, depending on the intended use, the morphology of the plants varies significantly between genotypes, in terms of height, biomass, and seed yield [1,2].

Cannabis female inflorescences and leaves are covered in glandular trichomes, which are considered as bio-factories of phytochemicals [3] due to their ability to synthesize and store different secondary metabolites, of which phytocannabinoids are the best known and studied [4]. On the basis of their cannabinoid content, in particular of their cannabidiol (CBD)/tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) ratio, Cannabis sativa L. genotypes are divided into five distinguished chemical phenotypes: (i) chemotype I, or drug-type (the predominant cannabinoid is THC); (ii) chemotype II, or intermediate-type (the predominant cannabinoids are CBD and THC); (iii) chemotype III or fiber-type (the predominant cannabinoid is CBD); chemotype IV (with a prevalence of cannabigerol, CBG) and chemotype V, classifying materials with undetectable amounts of any cannabinoid [5,6].

Since 2001, when the EC No. 2860/2000 entered into force, the European Union authorized the cultivation of hemp complying with the 0.2% w/w Δ 9 -THC threshold [7]. As a consequence, hemp cultivation for fiber and seed production was resumed, and more attention was paid to agro-industrial waste of the hemp chain, among which inflorescences, as valuable sources of bio-active molecules to feed pharmaceutical, cosmeceutical, and manufacture industry, in the perspective of the sustainable circular economy. In recent years, the extraction of hemp essential oil (EO) has gained increasing interest as a value-added product [8], thanks to its various fields of application [9]. Hemp EO showed its best outcomes as an environmentally friendly insecticide against aphids, housefly populations, and mosquitoes [10], as a noteworthy toxic effect against Aedes albopictus is reported. Moreover, it exerts a good toxic activity towards the snail Physella acuta, an intermediate host of nematodes and trematodes human parasites, as well as being a common disease for rice fields [11]. In the agricultural field, the hemp EO exhibits a strong allelopathic activity against invasive weed germination, as well as seedling growth [12]. Interestingly, EOs were reported to be effective against dermatophytes species, thus exerting a role in preventing skin disorders [13]. Moreover, its use as a beverage flavoring agent was reported [9].

Essential oil from Cannabis is a complex mixture of volatile compounds made up of more than 100 terpenes and terpenoids (the oxygen-containing terpenes), known as the major contributors of the peculiar aromatic profile of different Cannabis strains [14,15,16]. Monoterpenes (10 C) and sesquiterpenes (15 C) constitute the largest content of the hemp essential oil, in both their hydrocarbon and oxygenated forms [17,18], followed by diterpenes (20 C). Almost every compound identified in the EO has its own characteristic fragrance, and their combination is responsible for the unique aromatic bouquet of different strains [19], which can influence consumers’ preferences: Generally, hemp varieties with high percentages of monoterpenes are considered more pleasant than those with high percentages of sesquiterpenes [20]. Several factors, such as genotype, flowering behavior (dioecy or monoecy), cultivation technique, plant density, stage of development at harvest, material processing, and storage conditions can influence the composition of hemp EO (chemical profile) and its extraction yield. [19,21,22,23,24]. Monoterpenes could be present in higher quantities in the fresh material, while drying and storage could determine their loss, leading to the increment of the relative portion of sesquiterpenes. The environmental [8,21] and the weather conditions seem to be an important factor for both the EO composition and yield; indeed, dry conditions between flowering stage and seed maturity can prevent trichomes damage and EO yield losses [22].

All these factors affecting the yield and chemical composition of hemp essential oils, as well as the lack of standardization of growing and operating conditions, make it hard to compare the chemical composition of the essential oils extracted from different Cannabis sativa L. genotypes in diverse studies.

The present study aimed to evaluate the EO yield and the volatile profile of 11 different hemp genotypes, both monoecious and dioecious, belonging to three chemotypes (III–V), and the differences that occurred during two years of cultivation, in order to promote their employment as value-added by-products based on their peculiar characteristics.

2. Results and Discussions

2.1. Plant Material Features

The cultivation in open field for two consecutive years included five monoecious (Uso-31, Carmaleonte, Codimono, Futura 75, Felina 32) and six dioecious (Bernabeo, Carmagnola, CS, Fibranova, Fibrante, Eletta Campana) European industrial hemp genotypes. The main characteristics of plant material, including chemotypes, flower type, and flowering time, are reported in Table 1 .

Table 1

Agronomic trial data from the years 2019–2020. Height is expressed in cm, the diameter at the collar in mm, the density as number of plants/m 2 , and the dried inflorescences yield is g/m 2 .

Genotype Chemotype Flower
Type
Flowering
Time
Sowing Date Harvest Date Height Collar Diameter Plant Density Dried Inflorescences Yield
2019 2020 2019 2020 2019 2020 2019 2020 2019 2020 2019 2020
Carmaleonte III Monoecious Medium 19 April 23 April 16 September 16 September 177 ± 42.5 223.6 ± 35.7 7.9 ± 2.8 13.8 ± 3.3 62 ± 24 2.2 ± 1.1 460 20
Codimono III Monoecious Medium 19 April 23 April 25 September 16 September 183 ± 39.9 255.2 ± 32.8 6.6 ± 2.2 13.0 ± 3.6 77 ± 27.2 5.7 ± 0.7 440 51
Futura 75 III Monoecious Medium 19 April 23 April 18 September 16 September 77.3 ± 17.6 238.6 ± 58.2 255.6 ± 4.9 13.1 ± 4.4 8.6 ± 0.3 7.4 ± 1.3 71 67
Felina 32 III Monoecious Medium 4 June 23 April 20 September 16 September 151 ± 33 222.3 ± 43.3 5.9 ± 1.9 13.3 ± 4.5 61.3 ± 23.8 4.2 ± 1.5 160 40
Uso-31 V Monoecious Early 4 June 23 April 20 September 31 August 108 ± 31 184.4 ± 26.0 5.2 ± 1.9 11.6 ± 2.3 60.6 ± 11.3 3.2 ± 0.3 200 29
Bernabeo IV Dioecious Late 19 April 23 April 28 September 8 October 211.6 ± 50.1 277.3 ± 38.9 8.6 ± 2.8 19.5 ± 6.7 64.3 ± 15.3 4.3 ± 3.2 430 39
Carmagnola III Dioecious Late 19 April 23 April 9 October 8 October 228.3 ± 44.8 272.4 ± 34.5 8.2 ± 2.5 19.2 ± 5.1 61 ± 1 2.7 ± 2.0 410 24
Fibranova III Dioecious Late 19 April 23 April 30 September 8 October 273.7 ± 45.6 314.5 ± 34.8 9.4 ± 2.8 17.1 ± 5.0 78.3 ± 14.4 6.3 ± 3.2 440 57
Fibrante III Dioecious Late 19 April 23 April 11 October 8 October 269.1 ± 47.6 202.8 ± 5.2 10.1 ± 2.7 15.0 ± 1.3 85.3 ± 11 0.7 ± 0.4 420 6
Eletta Campana III Dioecious Late 19 April 23 April 16 October 8 October 260.3 ± 44.3 304.5 ± 40.4 9.1 ± 2.6 17.5 ± 3.6 94.7 ± 29.1 5.7 ± 2.1 420 51
CS III Dioecious Late 19 April 23 April 1 October 8 October 246 ± 51.8 333.7 ± 37.5 9.2 ± 3 18.1 ± 3.8 60.3 ± 22.3 6.3 ± 1.7 440 57

Sowing was performed on 19 April 2019 and 23 April 2020, with a 25 cm distance between rows on randomized blocks with three repetitions, and a plot size of 20 m 2 .

The harvest date differed according to the flower behavior and flowering time of each genotype. Generally, monoecious and early-flowering strains were harvested earlier than dioecious and late-flowering genotypes in both years ( Table 1 ).

The comparison between plant heights showed differences between the two years, with higher plants obtained in 2020. The same trend was observed when comparing plant collar diameters. Plant density, defined as number of plants/m 2 , and dried inflorescences yield/m 2 were significantly lower in 2020, while dried inflorescences yield calculated for single plant was by far higher in 2020 than in 2019. These differences in plant growth in the two years of cultivation could be due to the lack of rainfall in the pre- and post-emergence period of 2020, compared to that of 2019, which could have caused a reduced germination rate and, therefore, a lower plant density; conversely, 2019 was very rainy in May–June, favoring seed germination and following plant density. This rainfall trend was inverted in June; indeed, the rainy period (July–August) in 2020 could have allowed for a biomass production greater than that observed in 2019, as is clearly shown in Table 1 . Finally, September 2019 was rainier than 2020, and this could have influenced the EOs’ yield.

2.2. Essential Oil Compositions and Yields

The complete compositions and the yields of the essential oils obtained from the dried inflorescences of 11 genotypes of Cannabis sativa L., cultivated by CREA-CI (Italy) in an experimental farm located in Rovigo and harvested during the years 2019 and 2020, are reported in Table 2 and Table 3 , respectively. In total, 116 compounds were identified, representing 90.6–99.4% of the total composition.

Table 2

Complete composition and extraction yield (% w/w dry weight) of the essential oil obtained from the dried inflorescences and floral bracts of 2019 hemp samples.

Relative Abundance (%) ± SD
Monoecious Dioecious
Compounds l.r.i. 1 Carmaleonte Codimono Felina 32 Futura 75 Uso-31 Bernabeo Carmagnola CS Eletta Campana Fibranova Fibrante
heptanal 901 – 2 0.1 ± 0.06 0.1 ± 0.07
α-pinene 3 933 0.9 ± 0.21 AB;b 0.5 ± 0.10 ABCD;b 0.2 ± 0.00 BCD;b 0.8 ± 0.30 AB;a 0.8 ± 0.36 AB;b – D;b 1.0 ± 0.46 A;b 0.6 ± 0.09 ABCD;b 0.2 ± 0.11 BCD;b 0.1 ± 0.12 CD;b 0.7 ± 0.10 ABC;b
β-pinene 977 0.2 ± 0.05 0.1 ± 0.07 0.1 ± 0.05 0.2 ± 0.10 0.2 ± 0.09 0.1 ± 0.02 0.2 ± 0.01
myrcene 991 0.1 ± 0.01 BC;b 0.1 ± 0.09 BC;b – C;b 0.1 ± 0.07 BC;b 0.2 ± 0.07 B;b – C;b 0.5 ± 0.18 A;b 0.3 ± 0.03 B;b – C;b – C;b 0.6 ± 0.03 A;b
δ-3-carene 1011
α-terpinene 1017
limonene 1029 0.1 ± 0.07 0.2 ± 0.01 0.2 ± 0.04 0.5 ± 0.01
1,8-cineole 1031 0.1 ± 0.01 0.1 ± 0.07 0.1 ± 0.06
(E)-β-ocimene 1047 0.1 ± 0.06
γ-terpinene 1058 0.1 ± 0.07
terpinolene 1089 0.1 ± 0.07 0.1 ± 0.01
nonanal 1105 0.1 ± 0.08 0.2 ± 0.04 0.1 ± 0.07 0.1 ± 0.06
linalool 1101
fenchol 1114 0.2 ± 0.04
cis-p-menth-2-en-1-ol 1122
trans-pinocarveol 1139 0.1 ± 0.05 0.2 ± 0.02 0.1 ± 0.09 0.1 ± 0.07
trans-verbenol 1145
ipsdienol 1147
β-pinene oxide 1156 0.1 ± 0.07
borneol 1165 0.1 ± 0.07 0.2 ± 0.05
lavandulol 1170 0.1 ± 0.07 0.1 ± 0.03 0.1 ± 0.08 0.2 ± 0.04 0.1 ± 0.07 0.1 ± 0.10 0.4 ± 0.10
4-terpineol 1177 0.1 ± 0.09
p-cymen-8-ol 1185 0.1±0.07
myrtenal 1194 0.1 ± 0.07
α-terpineol 1191 0.1 ± 0.09 0.3 ± 0.03 0.1 ± 0.08 0.1 ± 0.08 0.3 ± 0.09
eugenol 1357 0.2 ± 0.04 0.1 ± 0.05 0.2 ± 0.20
methyl eugenol 1405
α-ylangene 1371 0.1 ± 0.05
isocaryophyllene 1407 0.2 ± 0.01 0.3 ± 0.01 0.1 ± 0.01 0.4 ± 0.02 0.2 ± 0.08 0.4 ± 0.07 0.3 ± 0.01 0.2 ± 0.04 0.2 ± 0.06 0.5 ± 0.11
cis-α-bergamotene 1416 0.1 ± 0.06
β-caryophyllene 1419 4.6 ± 0.21 C;b 6.6 ± 0.17 BC;b 2.9 ± 0.11 C;b 11.0 ± 0.70 A;b 4.9 ± 1.29 C;b 3.6 ± 0.62 C;b 10.2 ± 2.72 AB;a 9.4 ± 1.66 AB;b 3.1 ± 0.54 C;b 6.3 ± 2.32 BC;b 10.2 ± 1.27 AB;b
trans-α-bergamotene 1436 0.5 ± 0.01 0.3 ± 0.02 1 ± 0.02 0.5 ± 0.16 0.1 ± 0.07 0.1 ± 0.07 0.4 ± 0.17
α-guaiene 1439 0.3 ± 0.09 0.1 ± 0.07 0.1 ± 0.08
aromadendrene 1142 0.1 ± 0.01 0.1 ± 0.05
guaia-6,9-diene 1443
isogermacrene D 1451
α-humulene 1453 2.6 ± 0.08 DE;b 3.7 ± 0.10 BCD;b 1.7 ± 0.12 E;b 5.0 ± 0.12 AB;b 2.9 ± 0.73 CDE;b 2.7 ± 0.46 CDE;b 4.3 ± 0.99 ABC;a 5.0 ± 0.50 AB;b 1.8 ± 0.42 E;b 2.9 ± 1.04 CDE;b 5.7 ± 0.74 A;b
aristolene 1452 0.1 ± 0.07
(E)-β-farnesene 1458 0.3 ± 0.01 0.3 ± 0.03 0.8 ± 0.11 0.5 ± 0.18 0.1 ± 0.06 0.3 ± 0.08
alloaromadendrene 1460 0.2 ± 0.02 0.7 ± 0.03 0.8 ± 0.06 1.4 ± 0.44 0.2 ± 0.04 0.6 ± 0.15 0.4 ± 0.02 0.3 ± 0.04 0.3 ± 0.09 0.3 ± 0.05
4,5-di-epi-aristolochene 1468 0.1 ± 0.06
γ-gurjunene 1469 0.1 ± 0.07
β-chamigrene 1476
γ-muurolene 1477 0.4 ± 0.06 0.2 ± 0.01 0.1 ± 0.01 0.2 ± 0.03 0.1 ± 0.10 0.2 ± 0.06 0.1 ± 0.08 0.4 ± 0.16 0.2 ± 0.08
α-amorphene 1482 0.1 ± 0.06 0.1 ± 0.01
γ-selinene 1483 0.1 ± 0.01 0.3 ± 0.02 0.2 ± 0.03 0.5 ± 0.01 0.3 ± 0.08 0.3 ± 0.05 0.3 ± 0.13 0.3 ± 0.04 0.2 ± 0.05 0.2 ± 0.09 0.3 ± 0.03
β-selinene 1486 0.8 ± 0.03 B;b 0.9 ± 0.02 B;b 0.9 ± 0.11 B;b 2.2 ± 0.05 A;a 2.4 ± 0.65 A;a 0.9 ± 0.13 B;b 1.2 ± 0.38 B;a 1.1 ± 0.07 B;b 1.2 ± 0.40 B;a 0.9 ± 0.36 B;a 1.0 ± 0.14 B;b
δ-selinene 1491
valencene 1493 0.2 ± 0.03 0.2 ± 0.07 0.1 ± 0.05 0.2 ± 0.05 0.2 ± 0.01 0.1 ± 0.09 0.4 ± 0.02 0.1 ± 0.02 0.1 ± 0.08 0.3 ± 0.06
α-selinene 1495 0.4 ± 0.01 0.5 ± 0.03 0.5 ± 0.07 1.5 ± 0.09 1.1 ± 0.32 0.6 ± 0.13 0.7 ± 0.11 0.7 ± 0.09 0.8 ± 0.23 0.6 ± 0.27 0.6 ± 0.06
eremophilene 1499
α-bulnesene 1505 0.6 ± 0.06 0.1 ± 0.09 0.1 ± 0.07 0.1 ± 0.10
epizonarene 1501
β-bisabolene 1509 0.1 ± 0.02 0.2 ± 0.02 0.1 ± 0.06 0.3 ± 0.08 0.1 ± 0.02 0.2 ± 0.06 0.2 ± 0.08 0.2 ± 0.03
(E,E)-α-farnesene 1509
β-curcumene 1513 0.2 ± 0.03
trans-γ-cadinene 1513 0.3 ± 0.01 0.2 ± 0.05 0.1 ± 0.09 0.3 ± 0.04 0.3 ± 0.07 0.2 ± 0.03 0.1 ± 0.06 0.3 ± 0.10 0.1 ± 0.02 0.1 ± 0.02
sesquicineole 1516
7-epi-α-selinene 1517 0.2 ± 0.03 0.2 ± 0.04 0.3 ± 0.03 0.1 ± 0.15 0.4 ± 0.09 0.3 ± 0.01 0.1 ± 0.12 0.3 ± 0.04
(Z)-γ-bisabolene 1519 0.1 ± 0.11
β-cadinene 1519 0.3 ± 0.04 0.1 ± 0.03 0.1 ± 0.07 0.1 ± 0.12 0.2 ± 0.01 0.1 ± 0.07
trans-calamenene 1524
δ-cadinene 1524 0.2 ± 0.02 0.2 ± 0.04 0.1 ± 0.06 0.5 ± 0.02 0.1 ± 0.08 0.2 ± 0.06 0.2 ± 0.01 0.3 ± 0.08 0.2 ± 0.01 0.1 ± 0.10
selina-3,7(11)-diene 1530 1.6 ± 0.10 ABCD;b 1.0 ± 0.11 BCD;b 0.6 ± 0.14 D;b 2.1 ± 0.59 A;a 0.9 ± 0.16 CD;b 1.6 ± 0.31 ABCD;b 2.5 ± 0.21 AB;b 2.1 ± 0.06 ABCD;b 2.3 ± 0.33 ABC;b 2.1 ± 0.59 ABC;b 1.9 ± 0.16 ABCD;a
(E)-γ-bisabolene 1531 0.5 ± 0.05
α-calacorene 1543 0.2 ± 0.01 0.1 ± 0.14 0.2 ± 0.03 0.4 ± 0.06 0.3 ± 0.07 0.2 ± 0.01 0.3 ± 0.04
cis-sesquisabinene hydrate 1545 0.1 ± 0.02 0.1 ± 0.08 0.6 ± 0.18
elemol 1550 0.8 ± 0.13 0.7 ± 0.07 0.4 ± 0.06 1.1 ± 0.14 1.0 ± 0.24 0.2 ± 0.05 0.7 ± 0.00 0.5 ± 0.05 0.3 ± 0.06 0.4 ± 0.08 0.6 ± 0.03
guaia-3,9-diene 1556 0.1 ± 0.01
(E)-nerolidol 1564 0.7 ± 0.05 0.7 ± 0.05 0.5 ± 0.16 1.2 ± 0.31 0.6 ± 0.14 1.3 ± 0.28 0.6 ± 0.07 1.0 ± 0.07 1.0 ± 0.25 1.5 ± 0.30 1.1 ± 0.13
palustrol 1568
caryophyllene alcohol 1570 0.9 ± 0.12
spathulenol 1577 0.1 ± 0.00 0.2 ± 0.03 0.2 ± 0.07 0.1 ± 0.00
trans-sesquisabinene hydrate 1581 0.1 ± 0.07
caryophyllene oxide 1582 16.0 ± 0.1 B;a 14.2 ± 0.82 BC;a 7.1 ± 1.39 D;a 10.2 ± 1.32 CD;b 23.5 ± 3.19 A;a 14.2 ± 1.83 BC;a 13.7 ± 0.17 BC;a 11.3 ± 0.85 CD;a 10.9 ± 2.56 CD;a 10.2 ± 1.12 CD;a 16.6 ± 0.78 B;a
globulol 1583 0.6 ± 0.09 0.1 ± 0.06
trans-(Z)-α-bisabolene epoxide 1586
isoaromadendrene epoxide 1589 0.9 ± 0.23 0.9 ± 0.13 0.6 ± 0.60
epi-globulol 1590 0.2 ± 0.04 0.2 ± 0.03 0.5 ± 0.32 0.6 ± 0.01 0.2 ± 0.01 0.9 ± 0.91
viridiflorol 1592 0.3 ± 0.03 0.5 ± 0.07 0.5 ± 0.11 0.6 ± 0.20 0.3 ± 0.05 2.7 ± 2.20 0.3 ± 0.01 0.1 ± 0.10
guaiol 1596 1.1 ± 0.10
humulene oxide II 1608 6.1 ± 0.47 BC;a 6.6 ± 0.52 AB;a 3.7 ± 0.94 CD;a 4.8 ± 0.41 BCD;a 9.1 ± 0.76 A;a 6.9 ± 0.73 AB;a 2.7 ± 2.40 D;a 4.5 ± 0.56 BCD;a 2.6 ± 1.07 D;a 4.2 ± 0.68 BCD;a 7.0 ± 0.07 AB;a
cedrenol 1610 1.0 ± 0.04 0.2 ± 0.20
humulane-1-6-dien-3-ol 1613 0.1 ± 0.09
selin-6-en-4-ol 1618 2.4 ± 1.09 AB;a 1.6 ± 0.56 ABCD;a 0.4 ± 0.05 D;a 1.5 ± 0.25 BCD;a 0.8 ± 0.11 CD;a 3.1 ± 0.77 A;a 1.7 ± 0.33 ABCD;a 1.3 ± 0.13 BCD;a 1.8 ± 0.06 ABCD;a 1.7 ± 0.28 ABCD;a 2.3 ± 0.70 ABC;a
13-nor-valenc-1(10)-en-11-one 1629
1-epi-cubenol 1627 1.0 ± 0.12 0.4 ± 0.12 1.0 ± 0.37 0.6 ± 0.00 0.8 ± 0.23 1.0 ± 0.78 0.2 ± 0.18 1.0 ± 0.49 0.6 ± 0.07 0.2 ± 0.25
γ-eudesmol 1631 0.3 ± 0.31
caryophylla-4(14),8(15)-dien-5-ol (unidentified isomer 1) 1633 8.3 ± 0.12 A;a 7.6 ± 0.37 AB;a 3.8 ± 0.78 CD;a 4.9 ± 1.83 ABCD;a 4.7 ± 0.35 BCD;a 2.5 ± 0.39 D;a 3.3 ± 2.85 D;a 3.8 ± 0.65 CD;a 3.5 ± 0.81 D;a 5.0 ± 0.36 ABCD;a 7.1 ± 0.90 ABC;a
caryophylla-4(14),8(15)-dien-5-ol (unidentified isomer 2) 1633 7.3 ± 0.18 A;a 5.7 ± 0.51 B;a 3.9 ± 0.65 DE;a 3.7 ± 0.57 E;a 5.4 ± 0.27 BC;a – F;b 4.1 ± 0.68 CDE;a 4.1 ± 0.35 CDE;a 3.5 ± 0.13 E;a 4.8 ± 0.24 BCDE;a 5.1 ± 0.65 BCD;a
T-cadinol 1641 0.2 ± 0.03 0.1 ± 0.11 0.3 ± 0.12
cubenol 1641 0.1 ± 0.11 0.1 ± 0.07 0.4 ± 0.02
β-eudesmol 1649 0.2 ± 0.05 0.1 ± 0.08 0.1 ± 0.06 0.2 ± 0.21 0.7 ± 0.59 0.1 ± 0.06
α-eudesmol 1653 0.3 ± 0.19
neointermedeol 1655 0.2 ± 0.01 0.2 ± 0.22 0.5 ± 0.00 1.7 ± 0.11 0.5 ± 0.01
bulnesol 1668 0.4 ± 0.01 0.3 ± 0.07 0.2 ± 0.24 0.1 ± 0.11
14-hydroxy-9-epi-(E)-caryophyllene 1670 13.5 ± 0.42 A;a 13.5 ± 0.71 A;a 9.2 ± 2.34 BCD;a 9.1 ± 0.46 BCD;a 12.2 ± 1.22 ABC;a 8.1 ± 0.67 CD;a 7.8 ± 2.73 D;a 8.7 ± 1.99 BCD;a 9.1 ± 1.33 BCD;a 10.2 ± 0.44 ABCD;a 12.6 ± 0.14 AB;a
ylangenal 1675 0.1 ± 0.08 0.2 ± 0.01 0.1 ± 0.08 0.1 ± 0.01 0.2 ± 0.03
aromadendrene epoxide II 1680 0.6 ± 0.01 0.6 ± 0.04 0.3 ± 0.11 0.3 ± 0.03 0.5 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.04 0.3 ± 0.11 0.4 ± 0.07 0.4 ± 0.07 0.3 ± 0.01 0.4 ± 0.05
α-bisabolol 1685 0.5 ± 0.02 FG;a 2.6 ± 0.20 C;a 0.4 ± 0.20 FG;b 0.8 ± 0.17 EF;a – G;b 1.2 ± 0.22 DE;a 1.6 ± 0.38 D;a 1.3 ± 0.13 DE;a 4.9 ± 0.30 A;a 4.0 ± 0.29 B;a 0.8 ± 0.06 EF;b
cedr-8-en-13-ol 1688 0.1 ± 0.08
juniper camphor 1694 1.0 ± 0.02 0.9 ± 0.02 0.2 ± 0.07 0.6 ± 0.08 0.2 ± 0.02 1.2 ± 0.11 0.6 ± 0.11 1.0 ± 0.31 1.1 ± 0.30 0.9 ± 0.05 0.9 ± 0.03
(Z)-α-trans-bergamotol 1700 0.2 ± 0.01
α-phellandrene dimer 1801
nootkatone 1803 0.2 ± 0.00 0.2 ± 0.01 0.2 ± 0.04 0.1 ± 0.06
(E,E)-farnesyl acetate 1843
hexahydrofarnesylacetone 1845 0.7 ± 0.05 C;a 1.4 ± 0.05 BC;a 1.0 ± 0.29 C;b 1.0 ± 0.03 C;a 1.9 ± 0.72 AB;a 2.3 ± 0.04 A;a 2.3 ± 0.02 A;a 2.0 ± 0.09 AB;a 1.4 ± 0.34 BC;a 0.7 ± 0.07 C;a 1.4 ± 0.21 BC;a
1-hexadecanol 1877
(E,E)-farnesyl acetone 1918 0.4 ± 0.03 0.3 ± 0.00 0.7 ± 0.22 0.4 ± 0.03 1.6 ± 0.04 0.5 ± 0.02 0.4 ± 0.01 0.3 ± 0.04 0.2 ± 0.07 0.1 ± 0.00 0.3 ± 0.05
m-camphorene 1952 0.3 ± 0.02 0.1 ± 0.06 0.1 ± 0.07
p-camphorene 1986 0.6 ± 0.06 0.1 ± 0.12
ethyl hexadecanoate 2000
phytol 2112 0.9 ± 0.10 DE;a 1.5 ± 0.03 CDE;a 3.1 ± 0.65 B;a 0.6 ± 0.03 E;a 2.8 ± 0.18 B;b 5.4 ± 0.91 A;a 1.1 ± 0.30 CDE;a 2.1 ± 0.45 BC;a 2.0 ± 0.15 BCD;a 0.8 ± 0.09 E;a 0.9 ± 0.25 E;a
cannabidiol 2369 18.1 ± 1.7 BC;a 19.6 ± 1.23 BC;a 51.5 ± 8.36 A;a 22.9 ± 6.33 BC;a 11.8 ± 7.97 C;a 25.0 ± 5.7 BC;a 21.9 ± 0.92 BC;a 30.5 ± 1.62 B;a 34.5 ± 7.88 B;a 32.1 ± 9.62 B;a 12.6 ± 1.07 C;b
cannabichromene 2373 0.5 ± 0.18 0.2 ± 0.07 1.2 ± 0.96 0.3 ± 0.18 0.7 ± 0.56 1.6 ± 0.26 0.3 ± 0.18 0.5 ± 0.40 0.2 ± 0.01 1.0 ± 0.43 0.2 ± 0.16
Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol 2468 0.2 ± 0.06 0.3 ± 0.09 0.8 ± 0.15 0.3 ± 0.10 0.1 ± 0.13 0.3 ± 0.07 0.3 ± 0.05 0.4 ± 0.06 0.4 ± 0.10 0.3 ± 0.13 0.1 ± 0.01
Total identified (%) 93.8 ± 0.43 96.4 ± 0.12 97.4 ± 0.98 95.9 ± 1.42 97.3 ± 0.24 90.6 ± 0.92 92.5 ± 1.13 97.8 ± 0.52 95.4 ± 1.95 97.1 ± 0.79 97.7 ± 0.65
Monoterpene hydrocarbons 1.2 ± 0.26 ABC;b 0.7 ± 0.25 BCD;b 0.2 ± 0.00 CD;b 0.9 ± 0.42 BCD;b 1.4 ± 0.65 AB;b -D;b 2.0 ± 0.73 A;b 1.3 ± 0.31 AB;b 0.2 ± 0.11 CD;b 0.1 ± 0.12 D;b 2.1 ± 0.12 A;b
Oxygenated monoterpenes -B;b 0.1 ± 0.07 B;a 0.1 ± 0.03 B;b 0.1 ± 0.13 B;a 0.2 ± 0.09 B;b -B;b 0.5 ± 0.32 B;b 0.6 ± 0.13 B;b 0.1 ± 0.14 B;b 0.2 ± 0.24 B;b 1.3 ± 0.47 A;a
Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons 12.1 ± 0.23 CD;b 16.4 ± 0.66 BCD;b 8.0 ± 0.34 D;b 28.7 ± 0.84 A;b 15.9 ± 4.57 BCD;a 11.0 ± 1.99 D;b 22.3 ± 5.37 AB;a 20.8 ± 2.42 ABC;b 11.7 ± 2.83 D;b 15.5 ± 5.37 BCD;b 21.8 ± 2.90 AB;b
Oxygenated sesquiterpenes 59.6 ± 1.79 A;a 56.0 ± 1.50 AB;a 30.9 ± 7.02 D;a 40.6 ± 4.82 CD;a 60.9 ± 2.48 A;a 44.3 ± 3.81 BCD;a 40.5 ± 8.52 CD;a 39.3 ± 3.68 CD;a 44.6 ± 6.31 BC;a 46.0 ± 3.49 BC;a 56.7 ± 1.86 AB;a
Diterpene hydrocarbons – C;b – C;a – C;b – C;b – C -C;b 0.9 ± 0.08 A;a 0.1 ± 0.06 BC;b – C;b – C 0.2 ± 0.19 B;b
Oxygenated diterpenes 0.9 ± 0.10 DE;a 1.5 ± 0.03 CDE;a 3.1 ± 0.65 B;a 0.6 ± 0.03 E;a 2.8 ± 0.18 B;b 5.4 ± 0.91 A;a 1.1 ± 0.30 CDE;a 2.1 ± 0.45 BC;a 2.0 ± 0.15 BCD;a 0.8 ± 0.09 E;a 0.9 ± 0.25 E;a
Phenylpropanoids 0.2 ± 0.04 A;a – B;a – B 0.1 ± 0.05 AB;a – B,b B – B – B – B 0.2 ± 0.20 A;a – B
Cannabinoids 18.7 ± 1.93 BC;a 20.0 ± 1.24 BC;a 53.4 ± 9.47 A;a 23.5 ± 6.61 BC;a 12.6 ± 8.66 C;a 26.9 ± 5.89 BC;a 22.5 ± 1.05 BC;b 31.4 ± 1.97 B;a 35.1 ± 7.99 B;a 33.5 ± 10.18 B;a 12.9 ± 1.22 C;b
Apocarotenoids 1.1 ± 0.07 D;a 1.7 ± 0.05 CD;a 1.7 ± 0.51 CD;a 1.4 ± 0.01 CD;a 3.5 ± 0.76 A;a 2.8 ± 0.06 AB;a 2.8 ± 0.01 AB;a 2.2 ± 0.13 BC;a 1.6 ± 0.41 CD;a 0.8 ± 0.07 D;a 1.7 ± 0.26 CD;a
Other non-terpene derivatives – A;a – A – A;a – A 0.1 ± 0.08 A;a 0.2 ± 0.04 A;b 0.1 ± 0.15 A;a – A;b – A;a – A 0.1 ± 0.13 A;a
Extraction yield (% w/w) 0.04 ± 0.02 DE;b 0.07 ± 0.01 BCD;b 0.03 ± 0.01 E;b 0.12 ± 0.01 A;b 0.03 ± 0.00 E 0.03 ± 0.01 E;b 0.09 ± 0.02 AB;b 0.08 ± 0.01 BC;b 0.09 ± 0.00 AB 0.06 ± 0.01 CDE;b 0.08 ± 0.00 BC;b
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1 Linear retention index on a HP 5-MS capillary column; 2 Not detected; 3 Compounds accounting for at least 1.000% of the dissimilarity rate (According to the SIMPER test, see Table 4 ) are evidenced in bold. For these compounds, for all chemical classes, and for the extraction yield, different superscript uppercase letters (A–G) indicate statistically significant differences between the each variety; superscript lowercase letters (a,b) indicate statistically significant differences among the cultivar withdrawn on different years (see Table 3 for 2020 samples). The statistical significance of the relative abundances was established by the Tukey’s post-hoc test, with p ≤ 0.05.

Table 3

Complete composition and extraction yield (% w/w dry weight) of the essential oil obtained from the dried inflorescences and floral bracts of 2020 hemp samples.

Relative Abundance (%) ± SD
Monoecious Dioecious
Compounds l.r.i. 1 Carmaleonte Codimono Felina32 Futura 75 Uso-31 Bernabeo Carmagnola CS Eletta Campana Fibranova Fibrante
heptanal 901 – 2 0.3 ± 0.06 0.1 ± 0.10 0.1 ± 0.04 0.1 ± 0.07
α-pinene 3 933 2.7 ± 0.50 AB;a 2.0 ± 0.74 ABC;a 1.1 ± 0.40 CD;a 1.1 ± 0.11 CD;a 2.0 ± 0.26 ABC;a 0.5 ± 0.06 D;a 3.0 ± 0.04 A;a 2.1 ± 0.79 ABC;a 1.7 ± 0.01 BC;a 1.3 ± 0.39 CD;a 1.2 ± 0.06 CD;a
β-pinene 977 0.5 ± 0.06 0.5 ± 0.17 0.3 ± 0.07 0.2 ± 0.06 0.7 ± 0.18 0.1 ± 0.01 0.8 ± 0.09 0.7 ± 0.26 0.5 ± 0.02 0.3 ± 0.12 0.4 ± 0.03
myrcene 991 0.8 ± 0.09 CD;a 0.8 ± 0.33 CD;a 0.2 ± 0.02 D;a 0.4 ± 0.09 D;a 0.6 ± 0.12 D;a 0.4 ± 0.05 D;a 2.6 ± 0.16 A;a 1.3 ± 0.49 BC;a 0.6 ± 0.01 D;a 0.3 ± 0.10 D;a 1.8 ± 0.17 B;a
δ-3-carene 1011 0.1 ± 0.05 0.1 ± 0.01 0.3 ± 0.09
α-terpinene 1017 0.1 ± 0.06
limonene 1029 0.1 ± 0.01 0.1 ± 0.08 0.2 ± 0.01 0.1 ± 0.03 0.6 ± 0.10 0.7 ± 0.16 0.4 ± 0.01 0.1 ± 0.08 0.8 ± 0.08
1,8-cineole 1031 0.2 ± 0.05 0.2 ± 0.05 0.2 ± 0.09 0.2 ± 0.06 0.1 ± 0.02 0.2 ± 0.06 0.1 ± 0.06
(E)-β-ocimene 1047 0.1 ± 0.01 0.4 ± 0.13 0.1 ± 0.03 0.4 ± 0.02 0.3 ± 0.02 0.1 ± 0.06 0.2 ± 0.01 0.3 ± 0.07
γ-terpinene 1058 0.1 ± 0.07
terpinolene 1089 0.4 ± 0.14 0.2 ± 0.04 0.1 ± 0.09 0.1 ± 0.02 0.1 ± 0.01 0.3 ± 0.03 0.8 ± 0.19 0.3 ± 0.01 0.5 ± 0.03
nonanal 1105 0.1 ± 0.07 0.1 ± 0.06 0.2 ± 0.04
linalool 1101 0.1 ± 0.06 0.2 ± 0.01 0.2 ± 0.04 0.1 ± 0.03
fenchol 1114 0.2 ± 0.02 0.4 ± 0.07 0.2 ± 0.05 0.3 ± 0.00
cis-p-menth-2-en-1-ol 1122 0.2 ± 0.02 0.2 ± 0.03 0.2 ± 0.02 0.2 ± 0.01
trans-pinocarveol 1139 0.3 ± 0.03 0.1 ± 0.01
trans-verbenol 1145 0.2 ± 0.01
ipsdienol 1147 0.1 ± 0.05 0.1 ± 0.07 0.1 ± 0.07
β-pinene oxide 1156 0.3 ± 0.03 0.1 ± 0.01
borneol 1165 0.2 ± 0.02 0.1 ± 0.05 0.1 ± 0.00 0.2 ± 0.02 0.2 ± 0.04 0.2 ± 0.00 0.1 ± 0.06 0.2 ± 0.01
lavandulol 1170 0.4 ± 0.09 0.3 ± 0.06 0.2 ± 0.05 0.2 ± 0.05 0.4 ± 0.06 0.3 ± 0.01 0.6 ± 0.03 0.3 ± 0.01 0.6 ± 0.04
4-terpineol 1177 0.2 ± 0.03
p-cymen-8-ol 1185
myrtenal 1194
α-terpineol 1191 0.2 ± 0.03 0.2 ± 0.04 0.3 ± 0.01 0.5 ± 0.04 0.2 ± 0.03 0.5 ± 0.02
eugenol 1357 0.2 ± 0.06 0.1 ± 0.07 0.1 ± 0.03 0.1 ± 0.01 0.2 ± 0.07
methyl eugenol 1405 0.1 ± 0.02
α-ylangene 1371 0.2 ± 0.01 0.1 ± 0.07 0.1 ± 0.01 0.1 ± 0.04 0.1 ± 0.02 0.3 ± 0.01 0.1 ± 0.07
isocaryophyllene 1407 0.4 ± 0.03 0.4 ± 0.00 0.3 ± 0.09 0.4 ± 0.03 0.2 ± 0.01 0.3 ± 0.11 0.2 ± 0.04 0.3 ± 0.06 0.3 ± 0.01 0.5 ± 0.12 0.3 ± 0.01
cis-α-bergamotene 1416 0.1 ± 0.01 0.4 ± 0.14 0.1 ± 0.09
β-caryophyllene 1419 15.3 ± 1.44 AB;a 16.2 ± 1.46 AB;a 11.5 ± 3.55 ABC;a 13.8 ± 0.59 ABC;a 8.7 ± 0.77 C;a 10.4 ± 2.95 BC;a 14.4 ± 0.89 ABC;a 15.4 ± 2.45 AB;a 11.6 ± 0.09 ABC;a 16.8 ± 3.82 A;a 16.2 ± 0.8 AB;a
trans-α-bergamotene 1436 0.3 ± 0.00 1.1 ± 0.04 1.6 ± 0.42 1.5 ± 0.16 1.0 ± 0.06 0.3 ± 0.06 0.1 ± 0.01 0.1 ± 0.08 0.3 ± 0.01 0.9 ± 0.2
α-guaiene 1439 0.6 ± 0.14
aromadendrene 1142 0.3 ± 0.04
guaia-6,9-diene 1443 0.2 ± 0.01 0.1 ± 0.05 0.1 ± 0.05
isogermacrene D 1451 0.3 ± 0.03 0.2 ± 0.01
α-humulene 1453 6.9 ± 1.00 ABC;a 7.6 ± 0.17 A;a 4.7 ± 1.23 DE;a 5.8 ± 0.38 ABCDE;a 4.1 ± 0.06 E;a 6.2 ± 0.27 ABCD;a 5.3 ± 0.10 CDE;a 7.5 ± 0.19 A;a 5.4 ± 0.13 BCDE;a 6.3 ± 1.44 ABCD;a 7.4 ± 0.38 AB;a
aristolene 1452 0.1 ± 0.05
(E)-β-farnesene 1458 0.3 ± 0.04 1.2 ± 0.07 1.4 ± 0.37 1.7 ± 0.19 1.1 ± 0.05 0.4 ± 0.01 0.1 ± 0.07 0.1 ± 0.09 0.3 ± 0.03 0.8 ± 0.19 0.1 ± 0.06
alloaromadendrene 1460 0.4 ± 0.07 0.9 ± 0.00 0.6 ± 0.16 0.7 ± 0.07 0.9 ± 0.01 0.4 ± 0.03 0.3 ± 0.03 0.5 ± 0.01 0.4 ± 0.02 0.5 ± 0.09 0.2 ± 0.01
4,5-di-epi-aristolochene 1468
γ-gurjunene 1469
β-chamigrene 1476 0.1 ± 0.07 0.1 ± 0.03
γ-muurolene 1477 0.3 ± 0.02 0.2 ± 0.05 0.2 ± 0.04 0.1 ± 0.01 0.4 ± 0.09 0.2 ± 0.04
α-amorphene 1482 0.2 ± 0.02 0.2 ± 0.01 0.1 ± 0.02 0.2 ± 0.04 0.2 ± 0.01 0.1 ± 0.01 0.1 ± 0.01 0.1 ± 0.03 0.1 ± 0.03
γ-selinene 1483 0.5 ± 0.01 0.6 ± 0.04 0.5 ± 0.11 0.6 ± 0.10 0.4 ± 0.01 0.6 ± 0.01 0.5 ± 0.02 0.5 ± 0.03 0.5 ± 0.04 0.5 ± 0.11 0.4 ± 0.01
β-selinene 1486 1.3 ± 0.03 CDE;a 1.5 ± 0.10 CDE;a 2.1 ± 0.48 AB;a 2.2 ± 0.30 A;a 1.9 ± 0.02 ABC;a 1.5 ± 0.08 BCDE;a 1.2 ± 0.07 E;a 1.4 ± 0.13 CDE;a 1.8 ± 0.09 ABCD;a 1.3 ± 0.31 CDE;a 1.3 ± 0.05 DE;a
δ-selinene 1491 0.2 ± 0.01 0.1 ± 0.01 0.2 ± 0.04 0.3 ± 0.03 0.2 ± 0.02 0.2 ± 0.01 0.1 ± 0.04 0.1 ± 0.06 0.1 ± 0.05
valencene 1493 0.3 ± 0.01 0.3 ± 0.03 0.2 ± 0.05 0.3 ± 0.04 0.2 ± 0.00 0.3 ± 0.02 0.3 ± 0.05 0.3 ± 0.02 0.2 ± 0.00 0.3 ± 0.06 0.2 ± 0.02
α-selinene 1495 1.2 ± 0.00 1.2 ± 0.04 1.7 ± 0.40 1.5 ± 0.20 0.9 ± 0.09 1.5 ± 0.06 1.0 ±0.20 1.1 ±0.07 1.5 ± 0.16 1.0 ± 0.26 1.0 ± 0.07
eremophilene 1499 0.1 ± 0.04
α-bulnesene 1505 0.1 ± 0.02 1.4 ± 0.04 0.2 ± 0.05 0.1 ± 0.03 0.1 ± 0.01
epizonarene 1501 0.2 ± 0.04 0.2 ± 0.05 0.2 ± 0.03 0.2 ± 0.04
β-bisabolene 1509 0.1 ± 0.00 0.3 ± 0.02 0.3 ± 0.06 0.3 ± 0.04 0.2 ± 0.01 0.9 ± 0.11 0.4 ± 0.09
(E,E)-α-farnesene 1509 0.3 ± 0.01 0.4 ± 0.08 0.4 ± 0.06 0.4 ± 0.01
β-curcumene 1513 0.1 ± 0.01 0.2 ± 0.05 0.2 ± 0.03
trans-γ-cadinene 1513 0.5 ± 0.01 0.1 ± 0.00 0.3 ± 0.06 0.2 ± 0.01 0.1 ± 0.01 0.4 ± 0.03 0.2 ± 0.03
sesquicineole 1516 0.6 ± 0.03
7-epi-α-selinene 1517 0.4 ± 0.37 0.4 ± 0.05 0.6 ± 0.08 0.3 ± 0.01
(Z)-γ-bisabolene 1519
β-cadinene 1519 0.3 ± 0.01 0.2 ± 0.01 0.1 ± 0.14 0.2 ± 0.01 0.2 ± 0.02 0.2 ± 0.02 0.4 ± 0.05 0.3 ± 0.05 0.1 ± 0.05
trans-calamenene 1524 0.1 ± 0.05
δ-cadinene 1524 0.5 ± 0.03 0.4 ± 0.02 0.6 ± 0.06 0.5 ± 0.07 0.2 ± 0.02 0.2 ± 0.01 0.1 ± 0.01 0.2 ± 0.02 0.5 ± 0.10 0.3 ± 0.07 0.1 ± 0.01
selina-3,7(11)-diene 1530 5.2 ± 0.47 BC;a 3.2 ± 0.05 DE;a 2.1 ± 0.65 DEF;a 3.8 ± 0.55 CD;a 1.3 ± 0,13 F;a 3.8 ± 0.26 CD;a 3.4 ± 0.33 DE 3.1 ± 0.20 DE;a 8.6 ± 1.01 A;a 5.6 ± 1.30 B;a 1.9 ± 0.09 EF;a
(E)-γ-bisabolene 1531
α-calacorene 1543 0.4 ± 0.05 0.2 ± 0.01 0.3 ± 0.03 0.4 ± 0.04 0.2 ± 0.01 0.2 ± 0.02 0.1 ± 0.01
cis-sesquisabinene hydrate 1545 0.2 ± 0.05 0.1 ± 0.11
elemol 1550 0.4 ± 0.04 0.4 ± 0.04 0.4± 0.09 0.4 ± 0.06 0.6 ± 0.09 0.2 ± 0.05 0.2 ± 0.04 0.2 ± 0.02 0.2 ± 0.00 0.3 ± 0.04 0.2 ± 0.02
guaia-3,9-diene 1556 0.1 ± 0.10
(E)-nerolidol 1564 0.6 ± 0.04 1.2 ± 0.04 0.9 ± 0.36 0.8 ± 0.07 0.7 ± 0.12 1.2 ± 0.13 0.3 ± 0.04 0.6 ± 0.12 0.9 ± 0.11 1.5 ± 0.27 0.6 ± 0.01
palustrol 1568 0.4 ± 0.15
caryophyllene alcohol 1570
spathulenol 1577
trans-sesquisabinene hydrate 1581 0.1 ± 0.05 0.2 ± 0.05 0.1 ± 0.06
caryophyllene oxide 1582 11.8 ± 1.18 BCD;b 11.3 ± 0.85 BCD;b 10.9 ± 3.38 BCDE;a 13.9 ± 0.24 BC;a 22.7 ± 0.45 A;a 14.4 ± 1.22 B;a 7.0 ± 1.06 E;b 9.9 ± 0.78 CDE;a 9.1 ± 0.74 DE;a 12 ± 2.03 BCD;a 9.2 ± 0.11 DE;b
globulol 1583
trans-(Z)-α-bisabolene epoxide 1586 0.5 ± 0.16
isoaromadendrene epoxide 1589 0.5 ± 0.10 0.5 ± 0.02 0.5 ± 0.06 0.8 ± 0.01 0.7 ± 0.07 0.3 ± 0.01 0.5 ± 0.04 0.5 ± 0.07 0.5 ± 0.08 0.4 ± 0.01
epi-globulol 1590 0.1 ± 0.01
viridiflorol 1592 0.2 ± 0.03 0.3 ± 0.05 0.3 ± 0.04 0.8 ± 0.04 0.2 ± 0.04 0.1 ± 0.02 0.2 ± 0.00 0.3 ± 0.07 0.2 ± 0.04
guaiol 1596 0.3 ± 0.09
humulene oxide II 1608 4.2 ± 0.58 BCD;b 4.1 ± 0.55 BCD;b 4.8 ± 1.08 BC;a 4.9 ± 0.19 BC;a 9.3 ± 0.46 A;a 5.2 ± 1.40 B;a 2.4 ± 0.24 D;a 3.6 ± 0.32 BCD;a 3.4 ± 0.28 BCD;a 4.0 ± 0.58 BCD;a 3.1 ± 0.03 CD;b
cedrenol 1610 0.6 ± 0.11 0.1 ± 0.07 0.4 ± 0.03 0.5 ± 0.25 0.2 ± 0.00 0.3 ± 0.02 0.3 ± 0.02 0.2 ± 0.02
humulane-1-6-dien-3-ol 1613 0.3 ± 0.03
selin-6-en-4-ol 1618 1.1 ± 0.02 CDE;a 1.1 ± 0.23 CDE;a 0.5 ± 0.17 E;b 1.2 ± 0.08 CD;a 0.6 ± 0.05 DE;b 2.0 ± 0.55 A;a 0.8 ± 0.23 CDE;b 0.8 ± 0.11 CDE;b 1.9 ± 0.06 AB;a 1.3 ± 0.14 BC;a 0.7 ± 0.11 DE;b
13-nor-valenc-1(10)-en-11-one 1629 0.2 ± 0.01 0.4 ± 0.06 0.5 ± 0.05 1.0 ± 0.04 0.3 ± 0.34 0.2 ± 0.01
1-epi-cubenol 1627 0.4 ± 0.10 0.3 ± 0.07 0.4 ± 0.06 0.3 ± 0.26 0.5 ± 0.06 0.5 ± 0.10 0.2 ± 0.04 0.2 ± 0.07 0.2 ± 0.00 0.4 ± 0.04 0.2 ± 0.01
γ-eudesmol 1631
caryophylla-4(14),8(15)-dien-5-ol (unidentified isomer 1) 1633 0.7 ± 0.69 F;b 2.7 ± 0.46 AB;b 2.5 ± 0.25 ABC;b 2.6 ± 0.19 AB;a 2.7 ± 0.27 AB;b 3.0 ± 0.60 A;a 1.4 ± 0.15 DEF;a 0.9 ± 0.10 EF;b 1.6 ± 0.06 CDEF;b 2.3 ± 0.13 ABCD;b 1.7 ± 0.09 BCDE;b
caryophylla-4(14),8(15)-dien-5-ol (unidentified isomer 2) 1633 2.1 ± 0.21 ABC;b 2.6 ± 0.54 AB;b 2.8 ± 0.30 A;a 2.6 ± 0.16 AB;b 2.7 ± 0.31 A;b 1.8 ± 0.44 BCD;a 1.2 ± 0.09 D;b 1.3 ± 0.04 D;b 1.2 ± 0.03 D;b 2.2 ± 0.12 ABC;b 1.6 ± 0.07 CD;b
T-cadinol 1641 0.3 ± 0.05
cubenol 1641 0.4 ± 0.02
β-eudesmol 1649 0.2 ± 0.08 0.1 ± 0.00 0.2 ± 0.08 0.3 ± 0.09 0.2 ± 0.00
α-eudesmol 1653
neointermedeol 1655 0.3 ± 0.06 0.1 ± 0.11 0.3 ± 0.02 1.2 ± 0.00 0.2 ± 0.03 0.2 ± 0.00
bulnesol 1668
14-hydroxy-9-epi-(E)-caryophyllene 1670 3.8 ± 0.50 C;b 2.9 ± 0.56 C;b 5.8 ± 0.62 AB;a 5.4 ± 0.39 B;b 7.0 ± 0.53 A;b 5.5 ± 0.19 B;b 2.5 ± 0.12 C;b 3.0 ± 0.28 C;b 3.6 ± 0.81 C;b 3.6 ± 0.40 C;b 2.7 ± 0.21 C;b
ylangenal 1675 1.8 ± 1.66 0.2 ± 0.02 0.2 ± 0.05 0.1 ± 0.06
aromadendrene epoxide II 1680 0.2 ± 0.03 0.2 ± 0.03 0.2 ± 0.05 0.2 ± 0.02 0.1 ± 0.01 0.1 ± 0.12 0.2 ± 0.01 0.1 ± 0.09 0.1 ± 0.06 0.1 ± 0.02
α-bisabolol 1685 0.4 ± 0.06 E;a 1.7 ± 0.36 BC;b 0.8 ± 0.12 DE;a 0.4 ± 0.04 E;b 0.3 ± 0.03 E;a 1.2 ± 0.06 CD;a 1.1 ± 0.13 CD;a 0.6 ± 0.07 DE;b 5.2 ± 0.49 A;a 2.2 ± 0.36 B;b 1.1 ± 0.04 CD;a
cedr-8-en-13-ol 1688
juniper camphor 1694 1.0 ± 0.06 1.0 ± 0.24 0.4 ± 0.07 0.8 ± 0.08 0.5 ± 0.02 1.8 ± 0.03 0.9 ± 0.06 0.7 ± 0.07 1.0 ± 0.05 0.9 ± 0.18 0.7 ± 0.02
(Z)-α-trans-bergamotol 1700 0.2 ± 0.02
α-phellandrene dimer 1801 0.1 ± 0.02
nootkatone 1803 0.2 ± 0.01 0.2 ± 0.01
(E,E)-farnesyl acetate 1843 0.2 ± 0.02
hexahydrofarnesylacetone 1845 0.6 ± 0.11 D;a 0.6 ± 0.15 D;b 1.7 ± 0.24 BC;a 1.0 ± 0.21 D;a 1.9 ± 0.11 B;a 2.3 ± 0.11 A;a 0.8 ± 0.14 D;b 1.5 ± 0.05 C;b 0.7 ± 0.03 D;b 0.7 ± 0.13 D;a 0.7 ± 0.01 D;b
1-hexadecanol 1877 0.1 ± 0.07 0.1 ± 0.05 0.1 ± 0.05
(E,E)-farnesyl acetone 1918 0.6 ± 0.12 0.6 ± 0.03 0.2 ± 0.06 0.1 ± 0.01
m-camphorene 1952 0.1 ± 0.01 0.2 ± 0.06 0.1 ± 0.01 0.1 ± 0.02 0.3 ± 0.08 0.3 ± 0.03 0.1 ± 0.01 0.3 ± 0.00
p-camphorene 1986 0.2 ± 0.10 0.1 ± 0.06 0.5 ± 0.07 0.4 ± 0.07 0.6 ± 0.11 0.6 ± 0.09 0.6 ± 0.00
ethyl hexadecanoate 2000 0.1 ± 0.07
phytol 2112 0.5 ± 0.14 CD;b 0.4 ± 0.18 D;b 0.8 ± 0.27 BCD;b 0.4 ± 0.05 D;b 3.2 ± 0.11 A;a 2.7 ± 0.04 A;b 0.9 ± 0.06 BC;a 0.7 ± 0.19 BCD;b 1.0 ± 0.07 B;b 0.8 ± 0.23 BCD;a 0.9 ± 0.11 BC;a
cannabidiol 2369 23.2 ± 6.13 BCDE;a 21.8 ± 0.66 BCDE;a 28.2 ± 1.37 ABCD;b 20.9 ± 3.94 CDE;a 16.4 ± 0.36 DE;a 14.5 ± 1.27 E;b 35.9 ± 4.68 A;b 29.6 ± 2.31 ABC;a 22.2 ± 2.61 BCDE;a 21.3 ± 10.13 CDE;a 33.8 ± 0.98 AB;a
cannabichromene 2373 0.7 ± 0.36 0.7 ± 0.23 0.4 ± 0.23 0.7 ± 0.25 0.7 ± 0.11 0.4 ± 0.14 1.2 ± 0.39 1.1 ± 0.11 0.7 ± 0.12 0.5 ± 0.29 1.1 ± 0.07
Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol 2468 0.3 ± 0.09 0.4 ± 0.06 0.5 ± 0.01 0.2 ± 0.03 0.2 ± 0.00 0.2 ± 0.04 0.6 ± 0.16 0.5 ± 0.04 0.3 ± 0.08 0.3 ± 0.22 0.6 ± 0.01
Total identified (%) 94.5 ± 0.66 97.7 ± 0.08 98.1 ± 0.63 97.4 ± 0.09 99.4 ± 0.08 92.9 ± 1.03 96.9 ± 0.34 97.2 ± 0.25 95.8 ± 0.86 96.1 ± 1.06 97.2 ± 0.23
Monoterpene hydrocarbons 4.3 ± 0.71 BCD;a 4.1 ± 1.57 BCD;a 1.8 ± 0.52 DE;a 2.0 ± 0.36 DE;a 4.0 ± 0.60 BCD;a 1.2 ± 0.15 E;a 7.5 ± 0.42 A;a 5.7 ± 2.07 AB;a 3.7 ± 0.01 BCDE;a 2.5 ± 0.85 CDE;a 4.7 ± 0.35 BC;a
Oxygenated monoterpenes 0.5 ± 0.10 DE;a 0.9 ± 0.34 D;b 0.3 ± 0.06 E;a 0.2 ± 0.05 E;a 0.5 ± 0.07 DE;a 0.9 ± 0.15 D;a 1.8 ± 0.20 BC;a 2.3 ± 0.30 A;a 1.4 ± 0.12 C;a 0.6 ± 0.06 DE;a 2.0 ± 0.10 AB;a
Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons 35.5 ± 2.88 A;a 35.6 ± 2.00 A;a 29.6 ± 6.37 AB;a 35.8 ± 3.03 A;a 21.3 ± 0.88 B,a 29.7 ± 3.84 AB;a 28.5 ± 1.67 AB;a 31.8 ± 3.45 AB;a 34.5 ± 2.15 A;a 36.9 ± 8.42 A;a 29.6 ± 1.31 AB;a
Oxygenated sesquiterpenes 28.2 ± 2.24 CD;b 33.1 ± 4.36 BC;b 33.2 ± 7.07 BC;a 35.6 ± 1.25 BC;a 50.3 ± 0.95 A;b 40.3 ± 4.64 B;a 18.6 ± 2.13 E;b 22.9 ± 1.59 DE;b 30.9 ± 0.22 CD;b 32.3 ± 2.09 BC;b 22.9 ± 0.47 DE;b
Diterpene hydrocarbons 0.4 ± 0.11 BC;a 0.1 ± 0.06 D;a 0.9 ± 0.14 A;a 0.5 ± 0.08 B;a – D 0.1 ± 0.02 CD;a 1.0 ± 0.19 A;a 0.8 ± 0.12 A;a 0.1 ± 0.01 CD;a – D 0.9 ± 0.00 A;a
Oxygenated diterpenes 0.5 ± 0.14 CD;b 0.4 ± 0.18 D;b 0.8 ± 0.27 BCD;b 0.4 ± 0.05 D;b 3.2 ± 0.11 A;a 2.7 ± 0.04 A;b 0.9 ± 0.06 BC;a 0.7 ± 0.19 BCD;b 1.0 ± 0.07 B;b 0.8 ± 0.23 BCD;a 0.9 ± 0.11 BC;a
Phenylpropanoids 0.2 ± 0.06 AB;a 0.1 ± 0.07 CD;a – D 0.1 ± 0.03 BC;a 0.3 ± 0.01 A;a – D – D – D – D 0.2 ± 0.07 AB;a – D
Cannabinoids 24.2 ± 6.57 BCDE;a 22.8 ± 0.94 BCDE;a 29.1 ± 1.61 ABCD;b 21.8 ± 4.21 CDE;a 17.4 ± 0.47 DE;a 15.0 ± 1.45 E;b 37.7 ± 5.23 A;a 31.3 ± 2.45 ABC;a 23.3 ± 2.80 BCDE;a 22.1 ± 10.63 CDE;a 35.5 ± 0.91 AB;a
Apocarotenoids 0.6 ± 0.11 C;b 0.6 ± 0.15 C;b 2.4 ± 0.38 A;a 1.0 ± 0.21 C;b 2.5 ± 0.13 A;a 2.5 ± 0.06 A;b 0.8 ± 0.14 C;b 1.5 ± 0.05 B;b 0.7 ± 0.03 C;b 0.8 ± 0.14 C;a 0.7 ± 0.01 C;b
Other non-terpene derivatives 0.1 ± 0.07 B;a – B 0.1 ± 0.07 B;a – B 0.1 ± 0.08 B;a 0.4 ± 0.10 A;a 0.1 ± 0.10 B;a 0.2 ± 0.11 B;a 0.1 ± 0.12 B;a – B 0.1 ± 0.05 B;a
Extraction yield (% w/w) 0.12 ± 0.01 CD;a 0.23 ± 0.02 A;a 0.12 ± 0.00 CD;a 0.17 ± 0.01 ABC;a 0.03 ± 0.00 E 0.05 ± 0.01 DE;a 0.13 ± 0.00 DE;a 0.20 ± 0.02 AB;a 0.20 ± 0.00 AB 0.14 ± 0.04 BC;a 0.16 ± 0.01 ABC;a
See also  Lemon runtz seeds

1 Linear retention index on a HP 5-MS capillary column; 2 Not detected; 3 Compounds accounting for at least 1.000% of the dissimilarity rate (According to the SIMPER test, see Table 4 ) are evidenced in bold. For these compounds, for all chemical classes, and for the extraction yield, different superscript uppercase letters (A–F) indicate statistically significant differences between the each variety; superscript lowercase letters (a,b) indicate statistically significant differences among the cultivar withdrawn on different years (see Table 2 for 2019 samples). The statistical significance of the relative abundances was established by the Tukey’s post-hoc test, with p ≤ 0.05.

All the EOs, with the exception of Felina 32-2019, were characterized by a predominance of sesquiterpenes, in both their hydrocarbon and oxygenated forms, ranging from 47.1% in Carmagnola-2020 ( Table 3 ) to 78.5% in Fibrante-2019 ( Table 2 ). As reported in Table 4 , both the hydrocarbon and oxygenated sesquiterpenes presented significant differences in all the EO compositions as a function of the genotype, the year of cultivation, and their interaction.

Table 4

Two-way ANOVA performed on: (i) SIMPER-selected compounds; (ii) all detected chemical classes; (iii) EO extraction yield.

Genotype (G) Year (Y) Genotype × Year
(G × Y)
SIMPER-selected compounds (≥1% dissimilarity contribution)
cannabidiol *** n.s. ***
β-caryophyllene *** *** **
14-hydroxy-9-epi-(E)-caryophyllene *** *** ***
caryophyllene oxide *** ** ***
caryophylla-4(14),8(15)-dien-5-ol (unidentified isomer 1) *** *** ***
α-humulene *** *** ***
caryophylla-4(14),8(15)-dien-5-ol (unidentified isomer 2) *** *** ***
humulene oxide II *** ** ***
selina-3,7(11)-diene *** *** ***
α-bisabolol *** *** ***
phytol *** *** ***
α-pinene *** *** **
selin-6-en-4-ol *** *** **
myrcene *** *** ***
hexahydrofarnesylacetone *** *** ***
β-selinene *** *** ***
All detected chemical classes
Monoterpene hydrocarbons *** *** ***
Oxygenated monoterpenes *** *** ***
Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons *** *** ***
Oxygenated sesquiterpenes *** *** ***
Diterpene hydrocarbons *** *** ***
Oxygenated diterpenes *** *** ***
Phenylpropanoids *** ** **
Cannabinoids *** n.s. ***
Apocarotenoids *** *** ***
Other non-terpene derivatives *** ** **
Extraction yield (% w/w)
EO hydrodistillation yield (% w/w) *** *** ***

In 2019 EOs, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons exhibited a significantly higher relative concentration in Futura 75, followed by Fibrante and Carmagnola. Lower relative abundances were, instead, found in Bernabeo, Eletta Campana, and Felina 32 ( Table 2 ). In 2020 samples, instead, this class of compounds was significantly more abundant in Carmaleonte, Codimono, Eletta Campana, Fibranova, and Futura 75, while their lowest presence was detected in Uso-31 ( Table 3 ). Furthermore, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were significantly higher in 2020 than in 2019 for each analyzed hemp genotype, except for Carmagnola and Uso-31. Among this chemical class, the main volatile compounds were β-caryophyllene and α-humulene, in accordance with Ascrizzi et al. [9], Vuerich et al. [18], and Menghini et al., 2021 [25], who reported these constituents as being typical of hemp varieties.

Regarding the oxygenated sesquiterpenes, among the 2019 EOs, Carmaleonte and Uso-31 presented higher relative abundances (59.6 and 60.9%, respectively), whilst the lowest was exhibited by Felina 32 (30.9%). Conversely to the hydrocarbon forms, oxygenated sesquiterpenes were significantly more abundant in all the 2019 samples compared to those of 2020. These secondary metabolites are degradation products deriving from the oxidation of the corresponding terpenes due to air exposure (i.e., during prolonged storage), and are considered responsible for the antioxidant activity of many EOs [18,26]. Moreover, higher oxygenated compounds’ relative abundances reflect more favorable growth conditions, as was also confirmed by the higher plant density detected in the 2019 samples. The analyzed samples presented caryophyllene oxide and humulene oxide II as the main components of this chemical class, which were also reported as the main epoxides found in the hemp varieties analyzed by Micalizzi et al. [27]. Furthermore, 14-hydroxy-9-epi-(E)-caryophyllene, reported by Ascrizzi at al. [8], was present in low relative abundances.

The amount of selinene derivative compounds (α-selinene, β-selinene, selina-3,7(11)-diene, and selin-6-en-4-ol) in 2019 and 2020 is notable, as this is a common occurrence in hemp EOs; their presence was more consistent in Futura 75, Eletta Campana, and CS, as already reported in the literature [10,25,27]. Bernabeo EOs in both years were characterized by the presence of higher percentages of neointermedeol, α-bulnesene, and juniper camphor; Fibrante EOs by trans-α-bergamotene and (E)-β-farnesene.

Monoterpenes were poorly represented in all the samples, with no distinction between monoecious and dioecious varieties, but with differences induced by the year of collection and the genotype. They accounted for up to 9.3% in Carmagnola 2020 ( Table 3 ). Overall, 9 hydrocarbons and 14 oxygenated monoterpenes were detected: among the former, α-pinene, β-pinene, and myrcene were the most representative, whilst in the latter, no compounds were revealed in appreciable relative abundances. Among the 2019 EOs, monoterpene hydrocarbons were significantly higher in Carmagnola and Fibrante (2.0 and 2.1%, respectively), and the latter presented a significantly higher content of oxygenated monoterpenes as well (1.3%). Fibrante-2019 also differed from the other genotypes in terms of its higher relative abundance in limonene (0.5%), which reached 0.8% in 2020. In the 2020 samples, hydrocarbon forms were found to be more abundant in Carmagnola (1.8%), while the oxygenated ones in CS (2.3%). However, with the exception of Codimono, 2020 samples were characterized by a significantly higher relative abundance of both hydrocarbon and oxygenated monoterpenes.

The amount of the compounds belonging to this class of secondary metabolites is very different from those reported by Bertoli et al. [21], Benelli et al. [10] and Nissen et al. [28], in which the main detected chemical class was represented by monoterpenes, with significant differences between monoecious and dioecious genotypes; in these papers, however, the starting material consisted of the fresh inflorescences, rather than the dried ones. Assuming that the monoterpene content decreased in the drying process and storage [26,27,29,30], the predominance of sesquiterpenes in the examined EOs might be due, at least in part, to the drying process, which might have induced some changes in the chemical composition of the starting material, such as (i) evaporation of the low boiling-point compounds [27], and (ii) the induction of oxidative reactions, as in the conversion of β-caryophyllene in caryophyllene oxide, and α-humulene in humulene oxide II [30]. Nevertheless, few of the literature studies used the dried hemp inflorescences for the collection and characterization of the EOs.

Finally, cannabinoids were the second relevant class of compounds in all the EOs, excluding that of Felina 32-2019, in which they were the main chemical group, accounting for the 53.4% of the total ( Table 2 ). The detected cannabinoids were cannabidiol, cannabichromene, and Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol, but the first was the most abundant, with relative percentages ranging from 11.8 to 51.5% in Uso-31-2019 and Felina 32-2019, respectively ( Table 2 ). In 2020 samples, these metabolites were detected in a greater relative amount in Carmagnola (37.7%) than in Bernabeo (15.0%, the lowest). In general, cannabinoids were meaningfully higher in the 2020 samples, except for Bernabeo and Felina 32, but according to the two-way ANOVA ( Table 4 ), no significant differences were present between the two years of cultivation for this chemical class, which, on the contrary, showed significant differences among the genotypes. As for the sesquiterpenes, the predominance of cannabinoids in the EOs might be imputable to the drying process, during which the decarboxylation of cannabinoid acids into their relative volatile forms takes place [30].

Nevertheless, all the detected classes of compound, excluding the already mentioned cannabinoids, presented significant differences as a function of genotype (G), year of cultivation (Y), and genotype–year interaction (G × Y), as evidenced by the two-way ANOVA ( Table 4 ), which was also conducted on the chemical compounds, selected by the SIMPER test, which contributed to at least 1.00% of the dissimilarities in the composition between 2019 and 2020 EO samples. The statistical analysis evidenced that 16 compounds were responsible for an overall dissimilarity contribution of 32.94%, and only seven accounted for a total dissimilarity contribution above 55%. They comprised (i) the two main sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, β-caryophyllene and α-humulene, (ii) four oxygenated sesquiterpenes, caryophyllene oxide, 14-hydroxy-9-epi-(E)-caryophyllene, and the two isomers of caryophylla-4(14),8(15)-dien-5-ol, and (iii) one cannabinoid, cannabidiol: all the selected chemicals had significant differences based on the genotypes, year of cultivation, and their interaction.

The essential oil extraction yield ranged from 0.03 to 0.12% w/w for the samples collected in 2019, and from 0.03 to 0.23% w/w for the 2020 samples, where the highest yield was comparable to those already published in the literature [20]. A statistically significant difference in percentage was found among genotypes, year of cultivation, and the interaction between genotype and year ( Table 4 ). Regarding the dependence of the EO extraction yield on the hemp genotype, several studies are present in the literature [18,19,22,28,31], while no references are available for its dependence on the year of cultivation.

For the 2019 samples, the significantly highest EO extraction yield was obtained by Futura 75 (0.12%), followed by Carmagnola (0.09%) and Eletta Campana (0.09%), while the lowest (0.03%) from Bernabeo, Felina 32 and Uso-31. Regarding the 2020 samples, instead, Codimono, followed by Eletta Campana > CS > Fibrante (0.23% > 0.20% > 0.20% > 0.16%, respectively), were the most productive cultivars, whilst Uso-31 and Bernabeo were the least productive ones (0.03% and 0.05%, respectively). For Uso-31 (chemotype V), whose inflorescences are characterized by a negligible level of cannabinoids, the lowest EO extraction yield was found irrespective of the year. A positive correlation between the accumulation of total cannabinoids and total terpenes, both synthesized in glandular trichomes [22], was already reported [32,33,34], and explains the low EO yield obtained for Uso-31. Considering both the years of cultivation, all the 2020 samples were characterized by a significantly higher EO extraction yield than the 2019 ones ( Table 2 and Table 3 ), and this could be at least partly due to the different meteorological conditions occurring in the two subsequent growing seasons, particularly regarding rainfalls and average temperature ( Table 5 ). Higher temperatures might, indeed, cause a higher spontaneous evaporation degree of the EO from the plant trichomes.

Table 5

Weather parameters during field trials at Rovigo. Rainfall is expressed as millimeters per day (mm/day), Relative Humidity (RH) is expressed as percentage.

Buying Marijuana Seeds in Italy 2022

Laws on Buying & Growing Marijuana Seeds in Italy. Growing Tips, Recommended Strains, and the Best Seed Banks That Ship to Italy For the 2022 Growing Season.

In Italy, the legality of marijuana use and possession of cannabis seeds has changed a lot over the years, and in its current state, can be quite confusing to residents and tourists.

While traditional strains of THC-laden cannabis still remain illegal, in 2016, a change to the law regulating industrial hemp production made it legal to sell “cannabis light.” This mellow form of cannabis features 0.2% or less of THC, the psychoactive compound in marijuana.

The kicker, however, is that cannabis light may only be purchased as a “collector’s item.” It’s not legal to consume or smoke cannabis light or grow cannabis “light” seeds sold at seed banks.

Despite the laws against consumption, many people still enjoy cannabis light for the mellowing, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory effects of its CBD and other cannabinoids.

Medical cannabis is also legal in Italy and has been since 2013. It’s still illegal to buy cannabis seeds and grow them, even for medical purposes, as the military oversees the cultivation and production of all medical cannabis. Patients can get a medical marijuana card from a doctor and then fill their prescription at a local pharmacy.

If you live in Italy and want to grow your own cannabis from seed — read along and discover the best seed strains to grow in Italy, top-rated seed banks that ship to Italy, and lastly, regulatory cannabis laws.

In a Nutshell — The Legality of Buying Marijuana Seeds in Italy

If you want to grow weed that’ll make you say “mama mia!” — you’ll need to buy cannabis seeds from a reputable local or online seed bank.

However, Italy has a wide variety of cannabis laws that will make or break your experience. Here’s a summary of the most important laws regarding cannabis use and cultivation in Italy:

  • Recreational cannabis is illegal
  • Medical marijuana is legal (although limited)
  • Hemp (
  • Buying and growing cannabis seeds is illegal

Now that you know the basics of the legality of buying marijuana seeds from seed banks in Italy let’s dive into the topics that you want to know about before growing weed seeds in Italy.