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Black berrium seeds

Castor Bean

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Overview

Castor is a plant that produces seeds (beans). Castor oil is produced by pressing ripe seeds that have had their outer covering (hull) removed. The hull contains a deadly poison called ricin. Castor oil has been used as medicine for centuries.

Castor seeds without the hull are used for birth control, constipation, leprosy, and syphilis.

Castor oil is used as a laxative for constipation, to start labor in pregnancy, and to start the flow of breast milk.

Some people apply castor seed paste to the skin as a poultice for inflammatory skin disorders, boils, carbuncles, pockets of infection (abscesses), inflammation of the middle ear, and migraine headaches.

Castor oil is used topically to soften skin, bunions and corns; and to dissolve cysts, growths, and warts. It is also applied to the skin for osteoarthritis. Some women put castor oil inside the vagina for birth control or to cause an abortion. Castor oil is used in the eyes to soothe membranes irritated by dust or other materials.

In manufacturing, castor seeds are used to make paints, varnishes, and lubricating oils.

Ricin from the hull of the castor seed has been tested as a chemical warfare agent. Weapons-grade ricin is purified and produced in particles that are so small they can be breathed in. The smaller the particle size, the more poisonous the ricin. You may remember that ricin was found in letters sent to some Congress members and the White House, and in the possession of people linked to terrorist and antigovernment groups.

How does it work?

Castor bean is used to make castor oil, which is a strong laxative. In pregnancy, castor oil might start labor by stimulating the uterus.

SLIDESHOW

Uses & Effectiveness

Possibly Effective for.
  • Bowel preparation before colonoscopy. Some research suggests that taking a single dose of castor oil is effective for bowel preparation in people undergoing a colonoscopy. However, castor oil might not be as effective as other bowel preparations, such as sodium phosphate or bisacodyl plus magnesium citrate.
  • Constipation. Castor oil works as a stimulant laxative for reducing constipation when taken by mouth.
  • Birth control. There is some evidence that a single dose of castor seeds with the outer coat removed (hulled) can work as a contraceptive for up to 8-12 months.
  • Dry eyes. Some research suggests that using eye drops containing castor oil might be effective for people with dry eyes.
  • Stimulating full-term labor in pregnant women. A single 60 mL dose of castor oil appears to start labor within 24 hours in at least half of women at term pregnancy who try it. There is also some evidence that women at term pregnancy whose “water has broken” are more likely to go into labor and are less likely to need a Cesarean section if they take castor oil.
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for.
  • Syphilis.
  • Arthritis.
  • Skin disorders.
  • Boils.
  • Blisters.
  • Swelling (inflammation) of the middle ear.
  • Migraines.
  • Softening cysts.
  • Adhesive bowel obstruction.
  • Warts.
  • Bunions and corns.
  • Promoting the flow of breast milk.
  • Other conditions.

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).

Side Effects

Castor oil is LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth as a single dose. In some people, castor oil can cause stomach discomfort, cramping, nausea, and faintness.

Castor oil seeds that have had the outer coat removed (hulled) are POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth as a single dose. Also, castor oil eye drops are POSSIBLY SAFE when applied to the eye for up to 30 days.

Castor oil is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth long-term or in large doses. It might cause fluid and potassium loss from the body when used for more than a week or in doses of more than 15-60 mL per day.

The whole seed is UNSAFE to take by mouth. The outer coating (hull) of the castor seed contains a deadly poison. This outer coating can cause nausea; vomiting; diarrhea; abdominal pain; dehydration; shock; blood cell destruction; severe fluid and chemical disturbances; liver, kidney, and pancreas damage; and death. Chewing as few as 1-6 whole seeds can kill an adult. If the seed is swallowed whole, poisoning is less likely; however, prompt medical attention is still an absolute necessity.

QUESTION

Special Precautions & Warnings

Children: Castor oil is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth in appropriate doses short-term (less than one week). Castor oil is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth for more than one week or at a high dose. Taking more than the typical children’s dose of 1-15 mL per day, depending on age, can cause a chemical imbalance in the body. Castor seeds are UNSAFE if the whole seed is taken by mouth.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Using castor oil in pregnant women at term (ready to deliver) is POSSIBLY SAFE. Midwives routinely use castor oil for starting labor in pregnant women who are ready to deliver. However, castor oil should not be used for this purpose without the supervision of a healthcare provider. Also, it is LIKELY UNSAFE to use castor oil in pregnant women who are not at term. It might bring on labor too early. It is UNSAFE for women who are pregnant to take whole castor seeds by mouth, as it can cause serious toxic effects or death.

Don’t take castor oil if you are breast-feeding. Not enough research has been done to know whether a mother’s use of castor oil is safe for nursing infants.

Intestinal problems: Don’t use castor oil if you have a blocked intestine, unexplained stomach pain, or problems with your bile ducts or gall bladder.

Interactions

Water pills (Diuretic drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Castor oil is a laxative. Some laxatives can decrease potassium in the body. “Water pills” can also decrease potassium in the body. Taking castor oil along with “water pills” might decrease potassium in the body too much.

Some “water pills” that can decrease potassium include chlorothiazide (Diuril), chlorthalidone (Thalitone), furosemide (Lasix), hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ, HydroDiuril, Microzide), and others.

Dosing

The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

  • For constipation: 15 mL of castor oil is commonly used.
  • For cleaning the bowel before surgery or examining the colon (colonoscopy): The dose for adults and children over 12 is 15-60 mL of castor oil given 16 hours before the procedure. For children age 2-11 years, 5-15 mL is typically used. In children younger than 2 years, 1-5 mL is commonly used.
  • For starting childbirth: A variety of dosage schedules have been used. Single doses vary from 5-120 mL of castor oil. A one-time dose of 60 mL in fruit juice is commonly used. Other dosing schedules that have been used include 5 mL in peppermint tea every 2 hours, 15 mL three times daily, 30 mL every 2 hours, 30 mL every 6 hours, 30 mL every 3 hours for 3 doses, 60 ml daily, and 60 mL daily for 2 days.

Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration

You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.

Health Solutions From Our Sponsors

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Present, A. J., Jansson, B., Burhenne, H. J., Dodd, G. D., Goldberg, H. I., Goldstein, H. M., Miller, R. E., Nelson, J. A., and Stewart, E. T. Evaluation of 12 colon-cleansing regimens with single-contrast barium enema. AJR Am.J Roentgenol. 1982;139(5):855-860. View abstract.

Rischin, D., Webster, L. K., Millward, M. J., Linahan, B. M., Toner, G. C., Woollett, A. M., Morton, C. G., and Bishop, J. F. Cremophor pharmacokinetics in patients receiving 3-, 6-, and 24-hour infusions of paclitaxel. J Natl.Cancer Inst. 9-18-1996;88(18):1297-1301. View abstract.

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Scarpa, A. and Guerci, A. Various uses of the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis L.). A review. J.Ethnopharmacol. 1982;5(2):117-137. View abstract.

Stevenson, D., Tauber, J., and Reis, B. L. Efficacy and safety of cyclosporin A ophthalmic emulsion in the treatment of moderate-to-severe dry eye disease: a dose-ranging, randomized trial. The Cyclosporin A Phase 2 Study Group. Ophthalmology 2000;107(5):967-974. View abstract.

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Vieira, C., Evangelista, S., Cirillo, R., Lippi, A., Maggi, C. A., and Manzini, S. Effect of ricinoleic acid in acute and subchronic experimental models of inflammation. Mediators.Inflamm. 2000;9(5):223-228. View abstract.

Vitetta, E. S., Smallshaw, J. E., Coleman, E., Jafri, H., Foster, C., Munford, R., and Schindler, J. A pilot clinical trial of a recombinant ricin vaccine in normal humans. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci U.S.A 2-14-2006;103(7):2268-2273. View abstract.

Yang, H. C., Sheu, M. H., Wang, J. H., and Chang, C. Y. Bowel preparation of outpatients for intravenous urography: efficacy of castor oil versus bisacodyl. Kaohsiung.J Med Sci 2005;21(4):153-158. View abstract.

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Can fruit seeds and undigested plant residuals cause acute appendicitis

To investigate the relation between fruit seeds, plants residuals and appendicitis.

Methods

Among cases that underwent appendectomy, the appendicitis cases having fruit seeds and undigested plant residuals in their etiology were examined retrospectively. Also, histopathological features, age, sex, and parameters of morbidity and mortality were used.

Results

Fruit seed was found in one case (0.05%) with presence of pus in appendix lumen, undigested plant residuals in 7 cases (0.35%). It was determined that there were appendix inflammation in 2 of the plant residuals cases, while there were obstruction and lymphoid hyperplasia in the appendix lumen of 5 cases. No mortality was observed.

Conclusions

The ratio of acute appendicitis caused by plants is minimal among all appendectomised patients, but avoidence of eating undigested fruit seeds and chewing plants well may help to prevent appendicitis.

1. Introduction

The acute appendicitis observed in almost 7% of population is an acute illness of the Appendix vermiformis. It is the most common disease which requires emergent surgery. The obstruction of appendix lumen is the main cause of appendicitis. Basically fecalith, lymphoid hyperplasia, seeds of fruits and vegetables, barium obturator, and tumors of large intestine and appendix can be found as etiology of acute appendicitis. In our study, the cases with presence of undigested plant residuals and fruit seeds in the appendix lumen were studied and were discussed together with the literature data[1]–[5].

2. Materials and methods

Our study is a retrospective clinical study. The specimen removed from the patients operated under general anesthesia with the diagnosis of acute appendicitis was put into sterilized bottles with 10% formal-saline solution and was sent to pathology laboratory. Cases with presence of undigested plant residuals and fruit seeds in their etiology were involved in our study according to the result of pathological examination. The relation between age, sex, histopathological features and mortality of the studied cases were discussed.

3. Results

Among 1 969 cases diagnosed as acute appendicitis that underwent appendectomy between 2002 and 2009, 8 cases with presence of undigested plant residuals and fruit seeds were studied (0.4%, 8/1 969) with female/male ratio of 7/1. Their average age was 39 and all showed similar main complaints and examination findings as other acute appendicitis.

All 8 cases were discharged from hospital without any complication. Confirmed by histopathological examination, undigested plant residuals and fruit seeds were found in 7 and 1 cases, respectively ( Figure 1 and ​ and2). 2 ). There was pus in appendix lumen of the fruit seed case. Appendix inflammation was presented in 2 cases having undigested plant residuals in lumen, but not in other 5 cases. However, lumen obstruction and lymphoid hyperplasia were determined in these 5 cases. 7 out of the 8 patients underwent appendectomy during autumn and winter months, and (fruit seed case) in June.

4. Discussion

Generally speaking, the relation between appendix base and cecum do not change, but tip of appendix can be in different directions. The positions relative to the direction of appendix can be as follows: retrocecal, pelvic, sub-cecal, ileocecal and right pericolic[6].

Appendicitis is more common in males with a ratio of male/female of 1.4/1. It was estimated that 8.6% of men and 6.7% of women develop acute appendicitis in their lifelong. Young age is a risk factor, and nearly 70% of appendicitis cases are under 30. Appendix can be infiltrated by materials such as fecal material, microbes and parasites. Because most of these materials are on the streamlines, they can enter into organ lumen without leading to any symptoms. However, this can cause inflammation such as appendicitis. When appendicular mucosa continues fluid secretion, the internal pressure of lumen in obstructed appendix increases, and the increased pressure on appendix wall can lead to mucosal ischemia by exceeding the capillary pressure. Bacterial reproduction and translocation in internal lumen sticks to all wall layers of appendix, and leads to inflammation, edema and necrosis. The typical clinical process begins with intermittent stomachache like cramps thought to be caused by the blockage of appendicular lumen. Pain can be partially or extensively around navel, and can be difficult to localize. Typically, this is followed by nausea, but nausea can also not be presented. When inflammation becomes transmural and causes pyogenesis in peritoneum covering right lower quadrant, the character of pain would be changed and the obtuse colic pain would be replaced by constant and severe pain[1],[3],[7]–[10].

95% of the substances which are taken orally but not digested pass through the digestive system without any problem. More heavier substances, on the other hand, locate in the lower part of cecum and can easily enter appendix lumen. Because the peristaltic activity of appendix is not able to discharge this substance into cecum, the accumulation of foreign bodies can lead to obstruction of the lumen, and therefore lead to inflammation. The foreign bodies leading to appendicitis can be listed as follows; metal needles, shot particles swallowed by eating the animals meat, tooth stick, tooth fills, as well as fruit seeds. Some of the fruit seeds swallowed are removed from the body naturally, while some of them can be the cause of appendicitis. There are reported cases of appendicitis which are caused by seeds of vegetables and fruits such as cocao, orange, melon, barley, oat, fig, grape, date, cumin, and nut[11]–[14].

Materials in the appendix lumen (e.g. fecalith) do not cause inflammation of the appendix all the time but these may cause acute abdominal pain that mimics acute appendicitis and this patients are required to undergo appendectomy for acute appendicitis. So in appendectomy series the range of fecalith in noninflamed appendix is 20%-30%[15],[16].

In the series which Byard and his colleagues published in 1988, it was reported that among 1 409 appendectomy materials, fruit seed was observed only in one of the cases.(1/1 409, 0.07%)[17].

In one study, fruit seed was found in 1 among 1 969 appendectomy materials (1/1 969, 0.05%). 34 fruit seed cases were reported by others[18].

Since the fruit seeds in appendix are very rare, relevant publications are generally submitted to literature as case reports. The appendicitis cases with fruit seeds included in this study were similar to that reported by Byard et al. We consider that those 34 fruit seed subjects in literature do not reflect the facts due to the publishing criteria of the journals as well as the difficulties in scanning articles of the journals, and lack of indexing. Moreover, though appendectomy is the most common general surgical operation and can be performed in all hospitals, yet no publications related to the series are available in hospitals.

Phytobezoar develops through the combination of plant substances which are not digested in the gastrointestinal system[19]–[21].

Since undigested plant wastes are observed in the lumen of appendectomy material, they can be called as ‘microphytobezoar’. It was reported that phytobezoars consisting Trabzon palm or citrus led to intestinal obstruction[22]–[25].

Most of the people eat fruit seeds and plant residuals do not develop appendicitis generally. Ratio of acute appendicitis caused by plants is minimal in all appendectomised patients. Nevertheless, we would like to suggest undigested fruit seeds shouldn’t be eaten and plants be chewed well. We think that clinically and laboratory training must be performed in this area[26].

Acknowledgments

We would like to express our special thanks to Professor Ziya Alkan (Ege University Medicine Faculty, Parasitology Department) for his kind help in this study.

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The buyer would like to receive quotations for – Product Name: Black Chia Seed And Sunflower Seeds Quantity Required : 50 Carton/Cartons(sample) Shipping Terms : CIF Destination Port : Indonesia Payment Terms : Bank Transfer Looking for suppliers from : Worldwide Contact : Mansyurih

Wanted : Avocado Oil, Black Seed Oil, Olive Oil

Please quote for the following wholesale product requirement – Product Name: Avocado Oil, Black Seed Oil, Olive Oil, Pumpkin Oil, Clove Oil Packaging Terms : 5L, 10L Quantity Required : 15 – 20 Liter/Liters(sample) Shipping Terms : FOB Destination Port : Turkey Payment Terms : Bank Transfer Looking for suppliers from : Turkey Contact : Shakirah

Wanted : White And Black Sesame Seeds

Please quote for the following wholesale product requirement – Product Name: White And Black Sesame Seeds Specifications : Form: Seeds Origin: India Use: Food Packaging Terms : Bags Quantity Required : 1 Twenty-Foot Container Shipping Terms : CIF Destination Port : Colombo, Sri Lanka Payment Terms : L/C Looking for suppliers from : India Contact : Dhanushka

Wanted : Black Seeds Oil Capsules

Please provide a quotation to the following requirement from importer – Product Name: Black Seeds Oil Capsules Specifications: – Capsules – It Has Be Halal And Vegan Quantity Required : MOQ Shipping Terms : CIF Destination Port : Australia Payment Terms : L/C Or Bank Transfer Looking for suppliers from : Worldwide Contact : Fred

Wanted : Organic Sunflower Seeds Black

Buyer is interested to receive quotations for the following RFQ – Product Name: Organic Sunflower Seeds Black Specifications : Purity: 99% Shape: Long & Round Shape Quantity Required : 100 Metric Ton/Metric Tons Shipping Terms : CIF Destination Port : Australia Payment Terms : L/C Looking for suppliers from : Worldwide Contact : Henri Dagher

Wanted : Spices Like Cloves, Black Pepper And Cumin Seeds

Please quote for the following wholesale product requirement – Product Name: Spices Specifications : Type: Cloves, Black Pepper, Cumin Seeds Packaging Terms : 25 Kg Bag with inner Quantity Required : 2 Forty-Foot Container Shipping Terms : CIF Destination Port : Jebel Ali Port, United Arab Emirates Payment Terms : 100% USANCE L/C 90 Days Looking for suppliers from : Worldwide Contact : Dawood Gardezi

Wanted : Spices Like Black Pepper, Coriander And Fennel Seeds

Please provide a quotation to the following requirement from importer – Product Name: Spices Specifications : Type: Cumin Seeds, Chilies, Clove, Black Pepper, Coriander, Fennel Seeds, Cinnamon, Etc. Form: Whole & Powder Quantity Required : 100 – 300 Metric Ton/Metric Tons Shipping Terms : CIF Destination Port : Tokyo, Japan Payment Terms : L/C Or T/T Looking for suppliers from : Worldwide Contact : Kumar

Wanted : Spices Like Black Pepper, Cumin Seeds And Cloves

Buyer is interested to receive quotations for the following RFQ – Product Name: Spices Specifications : Black Pepper Grade A+ Indian GL 600 (Bold, 12mm) Cumin Seeds S.Q 99% Cloves Clean Grade A+ Colombo Lal Pari (Hand Picked) Green Cardamom 8mm Bold Green Packaging Terms : 10-25Kg PP Bag Quantity Required : 4 – 6 Twenty-Foot Container Shipping Terms : CIF Destination Port : United Arab Emirates Payment Terms : 100% USANCE L/C 90 Days Looking for suppliers from : Worldwide Contact : Bharathi